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Tomatoes, red, raw (organic?)

Red tomatoes, ripe and raw, are rich in carotenoids. They are used in cold and warm dishes, and their pulp can be further processed. Organic?
We have provided the missing values for the nutritional information from the USDA database for this ingredient.
95%
Water
 78
Macronutrient carbohydrates 78.27%
/18
Macronutrient proteins 17.71%
/04
Macronutrient fats 4.02%
 

The three ratios show the percentage by weight of macronutrients (carbohydrates / proteins / fats) of the dry matter (excl. water).

Ω-6 (LA, 0.1g)
Omega-6 fatty acid such as linoleic acid (LA)
 : Ω-3 (ALA, <0.1g)
Omega-3 fatty acid such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
 = 0:0

Omega-6 ratio to omega-3 fatty acids should not exceed a total of 5:1. Link to explanation.

Values are too small to be relevant.

Ripe, red tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are a very popular vegetable. They can be eaten raw (preferably organic) or cooked and are very versatile.

Culinary uses of tomatoes

Hardly any other fruit or vegetable has as many uses as tomatoes.

Can you eat tomatoes raw? Tomatoes are used both raw in cold dishes and cooked, blanched, steamed, grilled and baked in hot dishes. In addition, they are often processed into tomato paste, tomato juice and tomato ketchup. Tomatoes can taste different depending on the variety and quality, cultivation method, and climate. A good, ripe, red tomato has a good balance of acidity and sweetness when raw and is pleasantly aromatic. There are countless tomato varieties that differ in shape, color and size - so you can find small tomatoes like the cherry tomato (a variety of tomato) or even green varieties, such as the Green Zebra. In this article, we will focus on standard-sized red, ripe tomatoes.

Raw tomatoes are particularly suitable for salads, e.g. with vegan mozzarella and basil (vegan caprese) or red onions. They are also used in cold vegetable soups (gazpacho), as a side dish, in vegan sandwiches, wraps and burgers or simply as a raw food snack (comparable to an apple). Here are a few recommended recipes using raw tomatoes:

Tomato and Avocado Carpaccio with Poppy Seed Lime Dressing

Raw Pasta with Tomato Sauce, Spicy Nut Balls and Walnut "Parmesan" (in German)

Raw Chili with Mushrooms and Wild Garlic

Cauliflower Tabbouleh with Tomatoes, Olives and Herbs (in German)

Cooked tomatoes can be used for all kinds of tomato sauces (e.g., for pasta, lasagne or pizza), soups (e.g., tomato soup, quick red lentil soup with tomato, ginger and chilli (in German)) or simply as a vegetable for vegetarian and vegan dishes. Tomato risotto, ratatouille, Indian tomato curries or shakshuka also need tomatoes as an ingredient and taste wonderful. Tomatoes stuffed with rice, millet or quinoa, tomatoes baked with garlic or vegan, African stews (e.g., with kidney beans, peanut butter, garlic and cumin) are also recommended dishes. In addition, the pulp of the tomatoes can be processed into various tomato spreads (e.g., with sweet peppers or walnuts (pesto rosso)) or into tomato salsa (e.g., for chips).

Vegan recipe for Moroccan Tomato and Cucumber Salad

Ingredients (for 2 people): 4 ripe tomatoes (red, raw, organic), 1 cucumber, 2-3 tbsp fresh lemon juice, 3 tbsp rapeseed oil, 1 tsp ground cumin, 2 pinches of sugar, 3 sprigs of fresh peppermint, some salt and pepper, olives to taste.

Procedure: Rinse raw tomatoes and cucumber, dice and place in a bowl. Season with salt, mix and let steep for 20–30 minutes. Pour off the water that comes out. For the dressing, mix together the lemon juice, oil, cumin, sugar and pepper. Rinse the peppermint, shake dry and chop. Add the dressing and chopped peppermint to the diced tomatoes and cucumber and mix everything together. Add olives if you like, and season with salt and pepper. Serve with fresh, warm flatbread.

To find vegan recipes with tomato (red, ripe, raw) follow the reference: "Recipes that have the most of this ingredient".

Not only vegans and vegetarians should read this:
A Vegan Diet Can Be Unhealthy. Nutrition Mistakes.

Purchasing - storage

Can tomatoes be bought all year round? Tomatoes are available in all supermarkets, such as Walmart, Costco, Whole Foods Markets, Kroger, Target, Albertsons and Safeway (United States); Asda, Sainsbury’s, Tesco, Morrisons, Aldi, Lidl, and Holland & Barret (Great Britain); Metro, Extra Foods, Real Canadian Superstore and Goodness Me (Canada); and Coles, Woolworths, and Harris Farm (Australia), and organic supermarkets all year round. Both conventional and organic tomatoes are available. The tomatoes grown in the greenhouse in winter are usually not as aromatic as the sun-ripened tomatoes from the field. We recommend going to the weekly market in midsummer. There you will find various beautiful and tasty tomatoes.

Storage tips

Store raw tomatoes at room temperature. They can be kept for up to a week this way. You shouldn't store them in the fridge, as this has a negative effect on the ingredients, taste and shelf life. Store tomatoes separately from other products. They give off the plant hormone ethene (ethylene) that causes fruits or vegetables stored nearby to ripen faster.

Ingredients - nutritional values - calories

How many calories do tomatoes have? With 18 kcal and 0.2 g fat per 100 g, the tomato is very low in calories and fat.

Do tomatoes contain carbohydrates? Tomatoes contain 3.9 g/100g carbohydrates. The protein content (0.88 g/100g) is also sparse. A raw tomato is about 95% water and contains some vitamins and minerals.2

14 mg of vitamin C can be found in 100 g of raw tomatoes - this covers 17% of the daily requirement. Radishes (15 mg/100g) and fennel (12 mg/100g) contain a similar amount. The yellow sweet pepper is particularly rich in vitamin C.2 with 184 mg/100g.

The potassium content is 237 mg/100g (12% of the daily requirement). Lettuce, Chinese cabbage and pomegranate have similar levels. Dried herbs and spices contain many times more potassium, e.g., dried coriander leaves with 4,466 mg/100g (= 44.66 mg/1 g).2 However, it is important to note that only small amounts of spices and dried herbs are used. Spinach has a little more potassium among fresh vegetables with 558 mg/100g.

Do tomatoes contain vitamin K? Raw tomato also contains vitamin K. The vitamin K content of 7.9 µg/100g is similar to that in green sweet peppers (7.4 µg/100g) and raspberries (7.8 µg/100g). With 830 µg of vitamin K per 100 g, chard contains over 100 times the vitamin K content of tomato.2

Nutrient tables

You can find the total ingredients of tomato (red, ripe), the coverage of the daily requirement and comparison values ​​with other ingredients in the nutrient tables below. In the article Nutrients explained you will get a detailed insight into the topic.

Nutritional Information
per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Energy18 kcal
75 kJ
0.9%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 2000kcal
Fat/Lipids0.20 g0.3%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 70g
Saturated Fats0.03 g0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 20g
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber)3.9 g1.4%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 270g
Sugars2.6 g2.9%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 90g
Fiber1.2 g4.8%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 25g
Protein/Albumin0.88 g1.8%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 50g
Cooking Salt (Na:5.0 mg)13 mg0.5%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 2.4g
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Fat/Lipids
Carbohydrates
Protein/Albumin
Cooking Salt

Essential micronutrients with the highest proportions per 100g 2000 kcal
VitVitamin C (ascorbic acid) 14 mg17.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 80 mg
ElemPotassium, K 237 mg12.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2'000 mg
VitVitamin K 7.9 µg11.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 75 µg
VitFolate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and 15 µg8.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 200 µg
VitBiotin (ex vitamin B7, H) 4.0 µg8.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 50 µg
VitVitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.08 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
MinCopper, Cu 0.06 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.0 mg
MinManganese, Mn 0.11 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2.0 mg
VitVitamin A, as RAE 42 µg5.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 µg
VitVitamin E, as a-TEs 0.54 mg5.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 12 mg

Detailed micronutrients and daily requirement coverage per 100g

Explanations of nutrient tables in general

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 0.08 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the CH-EDI-Verordnung: 10 g
Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0.00 g< 0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the CH-EDI-Verordnung: 2.0 g

Essential amino acids per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Threonine (Thr, T) 0.03 g3.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.93 g
Tryptophan (Trp, W) 0.01 g2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.25 g
Phenylalanine (Phe, F) 0.03 g2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.6 g
Isoleucine (Ile, I) 0.02 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.2 g
Leucine (Leu, L) 0.02 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 2.4 g
Lysine (Lys, K) 0.03 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.9 g
Methionine (Met, M) 0.01 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.93 g
Valine (Val, V) 0.02 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.6 g

Vitamins per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 14 mg17.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 80 mg
Vitamin K 7.9 µg11.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 75 µg
Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and 15 µg8.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 200 µg
Biotin (ex vitamin B7, H) 4.0 µg8.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 50 µg
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.08 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
Vitamin A, as RAE 42 µg5.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 µg
Vitamin E, as a-TEs 0.54 mg5.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 12 mg
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 0.59 mg4.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 16 mg
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.04 mg3.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.1 mg
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.02 mg1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.09 mg1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 6.0 mg
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 5.0 µg

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Potassium, K 237 mg12.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2'000 mg
Magnesium, Mg 11 mg3.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 375 mg
Phosphorus, P 24 mg3.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 700 mg
Calcium, Ca 10 mg1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg
Sodium, Na 5.0 mg1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Copper, Cu 0.06 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.0 mg
Manganese, Mn 0.11 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2.0 mg
Iron, Fe 0.27 mg2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 14 mg
Zinc, Zn 0.17 mg2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 10 mg
Iod, I (Jod, J) 1.1 µg1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 150 µg
Fluorine, F 2.3 µg< 0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 3'500 µg
Selenium, Se 0 µg< 0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 55 µg

Health effects

Do tomatoes contain nutrients? Tomatoes are rich in nutrients and other bioactive compounds that are important or beneficial to human health.6 For example, they have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects.3 One of the most important contributors to the nutritional content of the tomato is the carotenoids. Carotenoids (such as lycopene, which also gives tomatoes their red color) act as antioxidants and scavengers for reactive oxygen species. In this way, they prevent damage to the genetic material caused by free radicals. They block uncontrolled and excessive cell "growing" and protect against cancer.5,6

In addition to the link between the consumption of tomatoes and tomato products and the reduction in the risk of cancer, recent research has also shown a reduced risk of diseases such as obesity, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia or cardiovascular diseases.7,8

Dangers - intolerances - side effects

The beneficial or harmful effects of tomatoes and tomato products are closely related to the presence and amount of various biologically active compounds. Carotenoids, potassium, some proteins, organic acids and glycoalkaloids (tomatine or solanine) are particularly noteworthy. Therefore, the effects of these compounds vary depending on individual consumption.3

The glycoalkaloid tomatine (sometimes also referred to simply as solanine18) is considered to be harmful to health. But in ripe tomatoes, the amounts contained are usually negligible. While unripe tomatoes contain around 500 mg tomatine per kg, it is hardly found in ripe fruits (approx. 5 mg/kg). This means that there are no symptoms of poisoning4 and the consumption of ripe tomatoes is harmless.18 You should only be careful when consuming products made from green, unripe tomatoes (such as jam or pickled tomatoes).18

For a long time, people suffering from kidney stones were advised to avoid tomatoes because of their oxalic acid content; Oxalic acid forms insoluble salts with calcium, which form stones. But tomato contains only little oxalic acid and therefore can be consumed by kidney patients.5

For some people with sensitive stomach, cooked tomatoes are difficult to digest.5

Possibility of confusion

Red tomatoes may bear a resemblance to the red fruits of the bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), a poisonous plant from the same botanical family. This gave the tomato a false reputation for being poisonous as well.5

Traditional medicine - naturopathy

What are tomatoes good for? At the beginning of the 20th century, tomato was used in folk medicine in the Americas as a remedy for dyspepsia (upper abdominal pain), liver problems and kidney diseases.9

Tomato also had a reputation for being an aphrodisiac, as indicated by the French term "pomme d'amour" and the English term "love apple".

Ecological footprint - animal welfare

The carbon footprint of tomatoes depends heavily on the cultivation system and region. Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses, especially when the regional climate is too cold. Heating of the greenhouses allows year-round cultivation of the heat-loving plants. Alternatively, plastic tunnels are used or the tomatoes are grown outdoors, which drastically reduces the amount of energy required.14 Seasonal, regional tomatoes have an average CO2 balance of 0.3 kg CO2 eq/kg, regional tomatoes from the greenhouse (off-season) have an average CO2 balance of 2.9 kg CO2 eq/kg.15 It is therefore best to buy during the season and, if possible, make sure that the tomatoes are "outdoor tomatoes" from the region.

The amount of water required to produce 1 kg of tomatoes also depends on various factors and varies greatly in the literature. The values ​​are between 214 and 1000 liters water-eq/kg tomatoes.15,16 In contrast to the number of emissions emitted, the amount of water required for 1 kg tomatoes grown in the greenhouse is on average less than for 1 kg tomatoes grown outdoors. This is a key factor, especially in arid regions. It is important to mention here that the tomatoes grow in such glass or plastic greenhouses in soilless substrates with nutrient solutions. In the plastic tunnel or outdoors, however, the tomatoes grow in the ground and receive organic-mineral fertilization in addition to green manure.17

The enormous demand for tomatoes led to large scale conventional cultivation with a larger ecological footprint, and at the same time to a decrease in quality. In conventional cultivation, mostly hybrid tomatoes are grown in hydroponics or on substrate blocks (glass wool enriched with nutrients). Although hybrid varieties also exist in organic cultivation (organic), chemical and synthetic pesticides and fertilizers are not used.13

Worldwide occurrence - cultivation

The tomato is native to South America.10 The Spaniards brought it to Europe from Peru and Mexico in the 16th century.5 Today, tomatoes top the list for global vegetable production. The world annual production of tomatoes in 2018 was about 182.3 million tons, of which the processing industry used about a quarter. Fresh tomatoes are mainly produced in countries in the temperate zones, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere.6 Major producing countries include Italy, Russia, Turkey and the USA.11

Tomato processing takes place in almost all countries, but consumption of processed tomatoes is limited to countries with a higher standard of living. According to the economic data collected, the tomato is undeniably the most consumed vegetable in terms of trade, quantity and commercial value. Tomato paste is the most important product in terms of both volume and value, followed by canned tomatoes (whole, chunks, peeled or unpeeled) and tomato ketchup.6

Growing wild

Wild tomatoes are found in tropical to subtropical areas. Various varieties have been created by crossing with close relatives, cultivated forms and wild species. These look very diverse - mostly they are small, green and partly hairy fruits.1

Cultivation - harvest

Tomatoes are easy to grow yourself - in pots on the balcony, in the greenhouse or in the garden. When growing in pots (at least 10 L capacity) you should opt for short-growing varieties. Tomatoes prefer well-loosened, humus- and nutrient-rich soil and a sunny, warm and wind-protected location. They are sensitive to waterlogging.12

Tomato plants are best grown indoors or under glass. Sowing should be done at the end of February, at the latest between the end of March and the beginning of April (in the Northern Hemisphere). Eight to ten days later the seeds will start to germinate if you put them in a light and warm place. After about three weeks, when the seedlings have developed the first pair of leaves (not cotyledons), the young plants can be picked out and repotted. Larger seedlings are also available in the garden centers. Tomatoes do not tolerate frost and should therefore only be outdoors when the temperature is warmer.12

After planting, you should water vigorously when the plants are small. But refrain from doing so in the days immediately after planting so that the plantlets are stimulated to grow roots. Later on, you can water the plants sparingly. Since tomatoes need plenty of nutrients, they should be given a natural, organic fertilizer every 14 days (e.g., nettle or comfrey manure that you have made yourself).12

All tomato varieties, except for bush tomatoes, need a climbing aid - spiral cages made of aluminum or stainless steel are particularly easy to clean. It is advantageous to put the sticks into the ground when planting. In this way, you can constantly turn the growing main shoots through the whorls in order to fix them.12

When are tomatoes ripe? In the Northern Hemisphere, the first tomatoes grown outdoors are ready to harvest at the end of July. Tomatoes grown in the greenhouse are usually ready for harvest a month earlier. Red tomatoes will continue to ripen if you keep them indoors.12

Tomato plants should be planted in a new bed every year, otherwise pests and plant pathogens can multiply in the soil.12

Additional information

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) belongs to the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Botanically, the fruits are berries.11

A distinction is made between tomatoes depending on their "growing" and fruit shape, and they are divided into categories, e.g.:12

  • Stick tomatoes (long main stem)
  • Bush or balcony tomatoes (bushy "growing" and limited height)
  • Beefsteak tomatoes (large, ribbed fruits)
  • Cherry or cherry tomatoes (small, cherry-shaped fruits and a variety of their own)
  • Cocktail tomatoes (to distinguish between the last two; see the ingredient cherry tomatoes).

There are over 2,500 varieties of tomatoes, differing in shape, color, size and taste.10

Alternate names

Colloquially, tomato is also called paradise apple, tomato paradeis or love apple. In English, tomato is occasionally referred to as love apple.

Bibliography - 18 Sources

Many researchers do not believe that Wikipedia is an authoritative source. One reason for this is that the information about literature cited and authors is often missing or unreliable. Our pictograms for nutritional values provide also information on calories (kcal).

1.Tomaten-aus-kurpfalz.de Die wilde Tomate – die Wildtomate.
2.USDA United States Department of Agriculture.
3.

Salehi B, Sharifi-Rad R, Sharopov F et al. Beneficial effects and potential risks of tomato consumption for human health: An overview. Nutrition. 2019;62:201-208.

4.

Friedman M. Tomato glycoalkaloids: role in the plant and in the diet. J Agric Food Chem. 1. Oktober 2002;50(21):5751–80.

5.Pamplona-Roger JD. Heilkräfte der Nahrung. Advent-Verlag: Zürich. 2006: 264-7.
6.

Vats S, Bansal R, Rana N et al. Unexplored nutritive potential of tomato to combat global malnutrition. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022;62(4):1003-1034.

7.

Perveen R, Suleria HAR, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Pasha I, Ahmad S. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoids and lycopenes chemistry; metabolism, absorption, nutrition, and allied health claims--a comprehensive review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;55(7):919-929.

8.Cheng HM, Koutsidis G, Lodge JK, Ashor A, Siervo M, Lara J. Tomato and lycopene supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2017;257:100-108.
9.Deutsche-apotheker-zeitung.de Tomate: Sieht gut aus, schmeckt lecker und ist gesund.
10.Gemuese.ch Tomate.
11.Brücher H. Tropische Nutzpflanzen. Ursprung, Evolution und Domestikation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: New York; 1977: 380-93.
12.

Mein-schoener-garten.de Tomaten.

13.Pini U. Das Bio-Food Handbuch. Ullmann Verlag: Potsdam; 2014: 748-9.
14.

Müller-Lindenlauf M, Zipfel G, Rettenmaier N, Gärtner S, Münch J, Paulsch D, Reinhardt G. CO2-Fussabdruck und weitere Umweltwirkungen von Gemüse aus Baden-Württemberg. 2013.

15.

Reinhardt G, Gärtner S, Wagner T. Ökologische Fussabdrücke von Lebensmitteln und Gerichten in Deutschland. Institut für Energie - und Umweltforschung Heidelberg. 2020.

16.

Mekonnen MM, Hoekstra AY. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2011; 15: 1577-1600.

17.

Boulard T, Raeppel C, Brun R et al. Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 31. 2011; 757-777. 

18.

Weiss C. Glykoalkaloide in Kartoffeln und Tomaten. Ernährungs Umschau. 2007;8:474-477.

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