Carrots are a favorite low-calorie raw food and are known for their high levels of carotenoids, which give them their characteristic color.
From Wikipedia: “The carrot (Daucus carota subsp.sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow varieties exist.
Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds. ... The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged and more palatable, less woody-textured taproot.
The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae. It grows a rosette of leaves in the spring and summer while building up the stout taproot. Fast-growing varieties mature within three months of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing varieties are harvested in autumn and winter.”
“Nowadays, the most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the greens are sometimes eaten as well.”
“Carrots can be eaten in a variety of ways. Only 3 percent of the β-carotene in raw carrots is released during digestion: this can be improved to 39% by pulping, cooking and adding cooking oil. Alternatively they may be chopped and boiled, fried or steamed, and cooked in soups and stews, as well as baby and pet foods. A well-known dish is carrots julienne.”
“The roots contain high quantities of alpha and beta carotene, and are a good source of vitamin K and vitamin B6.”
“The carrot gets its characteristic, bright orange colour from β-carotene and lesser amounts of α-carotene, γ-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. α- and β-carotenes are partly metabolized into vitamin A, providing more than 100% of the Daily Value (DV) per 100 g serving of carrots. Carrots are also a good source of vitamin K (13% DV) and vitamin B6 (11% DV), but otherwise have modest content of other essential nutrients (right table).
Carrots are 88% water, 4.7% sugar, 0.9% protein, 2.8% dietary fiber, 1% ash and 0.2% fat. Carrot dietary fiber comprises mostly cellulose, with smaller proportions of hemicellulose, lignin and starch. Free sugars in carrot include sucrose, glucose and fructose.
The lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids characteristic of carrots are studied for their potential roles in vision and eye health.”
“Carrots can be stored for several months in the refrigerator or over winter in a moist, cool place. For long term storage, unwashed carrots can be placed in a bucket between layers of sand, a 50/50 mix of sand and wood shavings, or in soil. A temperature range of 32 to 40 °F (0 to 5 °C) is best.”
“Carrots are one of the ten most economically important vegetable crops in the world. In 2013, world production of carrots (combined with turnips) was 37.2 million tonnes, with China producing 45% of the world total (16.8 million tonnes, table). Other major producers were Uzbekistan and Russia (4% of world total each), the United States(3%) and Ukraine (2%).”
Carrot cultivars can be grouped into two broad classes, eastern carrots and western carrots.
The myth about “night vision”:
“The provitamin A beta-carotene from carrots does not actually help people to see in the dark unless they suffer from a deficiency of vitamin A. This myth was propaganda used by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War ... to disguise advances in radar technology and the use of red lights on instrument panels.”
|Nutritional Information per 100g||2000 kCal|
|Saturated Fats||0.04 g||0.2%|
|Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber)||9.6 g||3.5%|
|Protein (albumin)||0.93 g||1.9%|
|Cooking Salt (Na:69.0 mg)||175 mg||7.3%|
|Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal|
|Vit||Vitamin A, as RAE||835 µg||104.0%|
|Prot||Threonine (Thr, T)||0.19 g||21.0%|
|Vit||Vitamin K||13 µg||18.0%|
|Elem||Potassium, K||320 mg||16.0%|
|Vit||Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11)||19 µg||10.0%|
|Vit||Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)||0.14 mg||10.0%|
|Sodium, Na||69 mg||9.0%|
|Min||Manganese, Mn||0.14 mg||7.0%|
|Vit||Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)||5.9 mg||7.0%|
|Prot||Isoleucine (Ile, I)||0.08 g||6.0%|
The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.
If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.
For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.
|Essential amino acids||2000 kCal|
|Threonine (Thr, T)||0.19 g||21.0%|
|Isoleucine (Ile, I)||0.08 g||6.0%|
|Tryptophan (Trp, W)||0.01 g||5.0%|
|Lysine (Lys, K)||0.1 g||5.0%|
|Leucine (Leu, L)||0.1 g||4.0%|
|Phenylalanine (Phe, F)||0.06 g||4.0%|
|Valine (Val, V)||0.07 g||4.0%|
|Methionine (Met, M)||0.02 g||2.0%|
|Vitamin A, as RAE||835 µg||104.0%|
|Vitamin K||13 µg||18.0%|
|Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11)||19 µg||10.0%|
|Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)||0.14 mg||10.0%|
|Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)||5.9 mg||7.0%|
|Vitamin E, as a-TEs||0.66 mg||6.0%|
|Thiamine (vitamin B1)||0.07 mg||6.0%|
|Niacin (née vitamin B3)||0.98 mg||6.0%|
|Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)||0.27 mg||5.0%|
|Riboflavin (vitamin B2)||0.06 mg||4.0%|
|Vitamin D||0 µg||< 0.1%|
|Essential macroelements (macronutrients)||2000 kCal|
|Potassium, K||320 mg||16.0%|
|Sodium, Na||69 mg||9.0%|
|Phosphorus, P||35 mg||5.0%|
|Calcium, Ca||33 mg||4.0%|
|Magnesium, Mg||12 mg||3.0%|
|Essential trace elements (micronutrients)||2000 kCal|
|Manganese, Mn||0.14 mg||7.0%|
|Copper, Cu||0.04 mg||5.0%|
|Iron, Fe||0.3 mg||2.0%|
|Zinc, Zn||0.24 mg||2.0%|
|Fluorine, F||3.2 µg||< 0.1%|
|Selenium, Se||0.1 µg||< 0.1%|