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The best perspective for your health

Kale

Kale is one of foods that is richest in vitamin C, but it also offers so much more. Depending on the recipe, it can be used raw, cooked, or even baked.
The nutritional information from the USDA database for this ingredient is in some aspects incomplete according to our definitions.
84%
Water
 63
Macronutrient carbohydrates 62.68%
/31
Macronutrient proteins 30.66%
/07
Macronutrient fats 6.66%
 

The three ratios show the percentage by weight of macronutrients (carbohydrates / proteins / fats) of the dry matter (excl. water).

Ω-6 (LA, 0.1g)
Omega-6 fatty acid such as linoleic acid (LA)
 : Ω-3 (ALA, 0.2g)
Omega-3 fatty acid such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
 = 1:1

Omega-6 ratio to omega-3 fatty acids should not exceed a total of 5:1. Link to explanation.

Here, essential linolenic acid (LA) 0.14 g to essential alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) 0.18 g = 0.77:1.
Ratio Total omega-6 = 0.14 g to omega-3 fatty acids Total = 0.18 g = 0.77:1.
On average, we need about 2 g of LA and ALA per day from which a healthy body also produces EPA and DHA, etc.

Kale, also called leaf cabbage, is one of the richest sources of vitamin C. It also contains a wide range of other vitamins and minerals and is packed with fiber and phytonutrients.

It is best to buy kale that has a rich green color and crisp leaves. Leaves with withered or dry tips usually have a yellow color. Fresh kale can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 5 days without any loss of vitamins. If you need to store it longer, you can blanch the kale and then freeze it.

General information:
From Wikipedia: “Kale (/keɪl/) or leaf cabbage refers to certain vegetable cultivars of the plant species Brassica oleracea. A kale plant has green or purple leaves and the central leaves do not form a head (as with headed cabbages). Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea.

Nutritional value:
Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% carbohydrates, 4% protein, and 1% fat. In a 100 gram serving, raw kale provides 49 calories. Like collards, it contains a large amount of vitamin K: several times the Daily Value (DV). It is a rich source ... of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate, and manganese. Kale is a good source ... of thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus.

Phytochemicals and health:
Kale is a source of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin.

As with broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, kale contains glucosinolate compounds such as glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of sulforaphane, a compound under preliminary research for its potential to affect human health. Boiling kale decreases the level of glucosinate compounds, whereas steaming, microwaving or stir frying does not result in significant loss.

Culinary uses:
Tender kale greens can provide an intense addition to salads, particularly when combined with other strongly flavoured ingredients like dry-roasted peanuts, soy sauce–roasted almonds, red capsicum flakes, or sesame-based salad dressings.

Flavored "kale chips" have been produced as a potato chip substitute.

Regional uses:

- North America: In the Southern United States, kale is often served braised, either alone or mixed with greens like collard, mustard, or turnip. It is also used in salads.

- South America: In Brazil, kale is a side dish for a common stew called feijoada.

- Africa: “Various kale types are eaten throughout south-eastern Africa, where they are typically boiled with coconut milk and ground peanuts, and served with rice, or boiled cornmeal.”

- Europe: “In the Netherlands, a traditional winter dish called "boerenkoolstamppot" is a mix of curly kale and mashed potatoes, sometimes with fried bacon, and served with rookworst ("smoked sausage").

In Italy, cavolo nero is an ingredient of the Tuscan soup ribollita. Kale (cavolo nero) is part of many dishes, such as cassoeula (pork stew) and polenta (corn porridge).

A whole culture around kale has developed in northern Germany ... There, most social clubs of any kind will have a Grünkohlessen or Kohlfahrt ("kale tour") sometime between October and February, visiting a country inn to consume kale stew, pinkel sausage, kassler, mettwurst and schnapps. Most communities in the area have a yearly kale festival which includes naming a "kale king" (or queen).

Curly kale is used in Denmark and southwestern Sweden ... an obligatory dish on the julbord in the region, and is commonly served together with the Christmas ham (Sweden). ... In Sweden, it is also commonly eaten as a soup, with a base of ham broth and the addition of onion and pork sausages.

A traditional Portuguese soup, caldo verde, combines pureed potatoes, diced kale, olive oil and salt. Additional ingredients can include broth and sliced, cooked spicy sausage.

In Montenegro and Croatia, collards and kale, locally known as rashtan, is a favourite vegetable. It is particularly popular in the winter, cooked with smoked mutton (kastradina) and potatoes.

In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in Scots dialectics is synonymous with food. To be "off one's kail" is to feel too ill to eat.

In Ireland, kale is mixed with mashed potatoes to make the traditional dish colcannon. It is popular on Halloween, when it may be served with sausages.

In Turkey, especially in the eastern Black Sea region, kale soup (karalahana çorbası), kale sarma, kale kavurma (sauté), and kale turşu are common dishes.”

- Asia: “A variety of kale, called kai-lan or Gai lan, is a common vegetable in China, Taiwan, and Vietnam, where it may be consumed with beef dishes. In Japan and South Korea, kale juice, known in Japan as aojiru (AKA "green juice"), is used as a dietary supplement.“

Interesting facts:
“Until the end of the Middle Ages, kale was one of the most common green vegetables in Europe. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the fourth century BC. It was also used as medicinal food source. Disocorides wrote that it could be used to treat bowel ailments. These forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales.“

Nutrient tables

The complete nutritional information, coverage of the daily requirement and comparison values with other ingredients can be found in the following nutrient tables.

Nutritional Information
per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Energy49 kcal
205 kJ
2.4%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 2000kcal
Fat/Lipids0.93 g1.3%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 70g
Saturated Fats0.09 g0.5%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 20g
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber)8.8 g3.2%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 270g
Sugars2.3 g2.5%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 90g
Fiber3.6 g14.4%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 25g
Protein/Albumin4.3 g8.6%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 50g
Cooking Salt (Na:38.0 mg)97 mg4.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 2.4g
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Fat/Lipids
Carbohydrates
Protein/Albumin
Cooking Salt

Essential micronutrients with the highest proportions per 100g 2000 kcal
VitVitamin K 705 µg940.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 75 µg
MinCopper, Cu 1.5 mg150.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.0 mg
VitVitamin C (ascorbic acid) 120 mg150.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 80 mg
VitFolate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and 141 µg71.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 200 µg
VitVitamin A, as RAE 500 µg63.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 µg
MinManganese, Mn 0.66 mg33.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2.0 mg
ElemPotassium, K 491 mg25.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2'000 mg
ElemCalcium, Ca 150 mg19.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg
VitVitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.27 mg19.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
ElemMagnesium, Mg 47 mg13.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 375 mg

Detailed micronutrients and daily requirement coverage per 100g

Explanations of nutrient tables in general

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0.18 g9.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the CH-EDI-Verordnung: 2.0 g
Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 0.14 g1.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the CH-EDI-Verordnung: 10 g

Vitamins per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Vitamin K 705 µg940.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 75 µg
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 120 mg150.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 80 mg
Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and 141 µg71.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 200 µg
Vitamin A, as RAE 500 µg63.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 µg
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.27 mg19.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
Vitamin E, as a-TEs 1.5 mg13.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 12 mg
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.11 mg10.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.1 mg
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.13 mg9.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 1.0 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 16 mg
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.09 mg2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 6.0 mg
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 5.0 µg

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Potassium, K 491 mg25.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2'000 mg
Calcium, Ca 150 mg19.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg
Magnesium, Mg 47 mg13.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 375 mg
Phosphorus, P 92 mg13.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 700 mg
Sodium, Na 38 mg5.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Copper, Cu 1.5 mg150.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.0 mg
Manganese, Mn 0.66 mg33.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2.0 mg
Iron, Fe 1.5 mg11.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 14 mg
Zinc, Zn 0.56 mg6.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 10 mg
Selenium, Se 0.90 µg2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 55 µg
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