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Whole grain rice, medium grain, raw (brown rice, organic?)

Wholegrain rice, medium grain (organic?), is brown rice, not hulled and tastes good as a healthy risotto. All vitamins and minerals are retained when eaten raw.
We have provided the missing values for the nutritional information from the USDA database for this ingredient.
Macronutrient carbohydrates 88.21%
Macronutrient proteins 8.69%
Macronutrient fats 3.1%

The three ratios show the percentage by weight of macronutrients (carbohydrates / proteins / fats) of the dry matter (excl. water).

Ω-6 (LA, 0.9g)
Omega-6 fatty acid such as linoleic acid (LA)
 : Ω-3 (ALA, <0.1g)
Omega-3 fatty acid such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
 = 0:0

Omega-6 ratio to omega-3 fatty acids should not exceed a total of 5:1. Link to explanation.

Values are too small to be relevant.

Whole grain rice , medium grain , is unpeeled medium grain rice ( raw ), which actually belongs to the short grain rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. japonica ). However, medium grain rice is also classified as a separate subgroup: Oryza sativa ssp. javanica. The length makes the difference: short grain rice is max. 5.2 mm long, medium grain rice 5.2-6 mm and long grain rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica ) over 6 mm. 16

Use in the kitchen:

What is brown rice? With brown rice (natural rice), only the husks of the rice grains are removed after harvesting, but not the silver skin and the germ. This means that wholegrain rice retains a more intense flavor with a nutty note. The consistency after cooking depends on the variety and the starch it contains. Short-grain and medium-grain rice have more amylopectin (soluble starch) than long-grain rice (contains more amylose), which is why they stick more when cooked - such as short-grain sweet natural rice (mochi rice ). But the processing process and cooking method also influence the stickiness of rice.

Medium-grain wholegrain rice is ideal as a side dish or for a healthy risotto or rice pudding. Vegetable rice or rice fritters are also excellent rice dishes (brown rice recipes). If you find the nutty taste of wholegrain rice too strong but still want to benefit from the health advantages of wholegrain rice, you can cook white rice with brown rice (be careful: different cooking times).

Sprouted whole grain rice tastes great as a healthy organic raw food (see below for information on sprouting).

The fungus Kōji ( Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae ) can be used to make the sweet drink Amazake from rice. Koji is added to cooled, cooked wholegrain rice and its enzymes break down the rice starch into sugar. Amazake is known as baby food, dessert, snack, natural sweetener and as a salad dressing. Fermentation takes 12 hours and requires a temperature of 50-60 °C. The rice-koji mixture can be heated in the oven. Amazake will keep for 5-10 days when cooled. The consistency is between rice pudding and cream soup. To drink, Amazake is diluted with water. 18

Recipe for a vegan whole grain rice poke bowl with tahini sauce:

Ingredients (for 4 people): 400 g whole grain rice (medium grain, raw, organic), 400 g broccoli , 4 carrots , 6 radishes , 2 avocados , 65 g tahini , 1 clove of garlic , 1 teaspoon freshly grated ginger (organic), 1 tablespoon maple syrup , 1 tablespoon rice vinegar , 1 tablespoon soy sauce (tamari) , 2-4 tablespoons water , a little black sesame seeds .

Preparation: Soak medium-grain brown rice (wholemeal rice) overnight, then wash it well and cook it with plenty of water for 45-60 minutes. Drain the remaining water and keep the rice warm until serving. Wash the broccoli and divide it into florets. Peel and wash the carrots and cut them into thin slices. Steam both in a pan with boiling water for 5-10 minutes. Remove the pits from the avocados, remove the flesh with a spoon and cut into slices. Wash the radishes and also cut them into slices. For the sauce, puree the tahini with chopped garlic, grated ginger, maple syrup, rice vinegar and soy sauce using a hand blender until smooth. Then add enough water to achieve the desired consistency. Divide the cooked wholegrain rice into 4 bowls and serve each with steamed carrots and broccoli, avocados and radishes. Drizzle the tahini sauce over the top and decorate the vegan poke bowl with black sesame seeds.

Vegan recipes with medium-grain brown rice can be found under the note: " Recipes that have the most of this ingredient ".

Not only vegans or vegetarians should read this:
Vegans often eat unhealthily. Avoidable nutritional mistakes

Shopping - where to buy brown rice?

Supermarkets such as Coop , Migros , Denner , Volg , Spar , Aldi , Lidl , Rewe , Edeka , Hofer etc. usually only sell one type of wholegrain rice. The type of wholegrain rice on offer is often not clearly marked. Occasionally you can find black rice (medium-grain wholegrain rice, e.g. Riso Venere). Even in organic shops, organic supermarkets (e.g. Alnatura and Denn's Biomarkt ), health food stores and delicatessens, the selection of medium-grain wholegrain rice is not large. Online shops have a larger selection of wholegrain rice, usually also untreated rice (organic).

Why does brown rice have green grains? Sometimes you can find green, unripe grains in brown rice because not all rice grains ripen at the same time. These grains are harmless to health and the green color disappears when cooked.

There is also green rice on the market that is deliberately harvested when it is unripe and pressed out of the stalk by hand and dried. The sugar has not yet turned into starch, which is why it is usually cooked into porridge, used for breading or eaten as a dessert. The subtle green rice usually turns yellow when dried, and a green color is sometimes added using food coloring. Green rice is popular in Thailand, but also in Vietnam (Cốm), as chef Cameron Stauch reports in his blog A Global Kitchen . 19

Preparation of medium-grain wholegrain rice:

Cooking wholegrain rice: Raw wholegrain rice should be soaked in water overnight. Then pour off the water and wash the rice well again. You can then cook the brown rice by covering it and letting it simmer gently for around 45-60 minutes with plenty of water and pouring away the excess water after the cooking time.

By thoroughly washing, soaking and cooking in enough water (at least 5 times the amount), you can also significantly reduce pollutants such as arsenic, which are mainly found in the outer layers of rice. 8

Germinate wholegrain rice: Can you eat rice raw? Rice is very hard when raw and therefore inedible when dried. Soaked and germinated rice can be eaten uncooked (raw food). Only undamaged grains of raw wholegrain rice can germinate, so prefer organic quality. Soaking and germinating also reduces the phytic acid contained in natural rice. Wholegrain rice needs to be soaked for around 12 hours and germinated for around 3-4 days, after which you can eat rice raw. Hygiene is particularly important when germinating and sprouting, which is why you should always rinse both the rice and the germination equipment thoroughly.

Detailed instructions for cooking and sprouting can be found in the article on whole grain rice and brown rice .

Storage of wholegrain rice:

Store brown rice (raw) in a dark, cool and dry place. Natural rice has a shelf life of about a year - less long than peeled white rice. Wholegrain rice still contains silver skin and germ, which promote rancidity.

You should not store whole grain rice (raw) next to strong smelling foods such as spices, coffee, tea or chocolate, because otherwise the rice will absorb their smell.

Ingredients - Brown rice nutritional values - Calories:

The energy content of 100 g of medium-grain brown rice (raw) is 362 kcal. As with all types of rice, the calories in wholegrain rice come mostly from carbohydrates. Medium-grain wholegrain rice contains 7.5 g of protein per 100 g and is therefore rather low in protein compared to other types of grain such as oats (17 g). With 2.7 g of fat per 100 g, medium-grain brown rice has slightly more than white long-grain rice (0.66 g) and short-grain rice (0.52 g). Medium-grain wholegrain rice contains more than twice as much fiber (3.4 g/100 g) as white long-grain rice (1.3 g). 1

The manganese content of medium-grain wholegrain rice is 3.7 mg/100g, which covers more than 100% of the daily requirement. Oat flakes (3.6 mg/100g) and walnuts (3.4 mg/100g) contain a similar amount of manganese. Peeling and cooking reduces the trace element content enormously: white long-grain rice contains 1.1 mg/100g and cooked wholegrain rice only has 0.97 mg/100g. With 2 mg of manganese, 100 g of chickpeas (raw) have a high content, but cooked chickpeas only provide half that, about 1 mg/100g. 1

100 g of medium-grain brown rice contains 0.1 g of the amino acid tryptophan , which makes up 39% of the daily requirement. Pecans and white long-grain rice contain a similar amount of tryptophan. Mature soybeans contain 590 mg/100g. 1

Wholegrain rice (medium grain) contains 143 mg of magnesium per 100 g, which is comparable to raw spelt (136 mg/100g). Raw wheat bran has a very high level of this element at 611 mg/100g.

Medium-grain whole grain rice contains 0.41 mg of thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) per 100 g (38% of the daily requirement), similar to wheat grains (0.39 mg) and millet (0.42 g). With 41 mg of thiamine, 100 g of yeast flakes contain a hundred times that amount. 1

Note: The exact ingredients and nutritional values of medium-grain wholegrain rice depend on the variety and the growing conditions. In general, the nutritional value of wholegrain rice is clearly better than that of white rice: the content of magnesium, calcium , iron , zinc , vitamin E , vitamin B 1 , vitamin B 2 and vitamin B 3 is higher.

The complete ingredients of whole grain rice (medium grain), the coverage of the daily requirement and comparison values with other ingredients can be found in our nutrient tables. In the article Nutrients explained you will get a detailed insight into the topic.

Health aspects - effects of wholegrain rice:

Without peeling, polishing and grinding the rice grains, the healthy vital substances and the high fiber content in wholegrain rice are retained. In addition, the outer layers of the grains contain important secondary plant substances, such as phytic acid. Although phytic acid binds minerals from food and these are therefore no longer available to the body, this secondary plant substance also has positive properties. The antioxidant effect is even said to have a preventive effect against colon cancer. 2 You can find out more about this in the article Phytic acid or phytate and soaking or sprouting .

After a gastroenteritis or inflammation of the colon, brown rice or whole grain rice is said to support the reconstruction of the intestinal mucous membranes due to its slightly astringent effect. 3

Wholegrain rice and sprouted brown rice can prevent diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer's due to the bioactive components they contain (such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, ferulic acid, γ-oryzanol and γ-aminobutyric acid). 4,5 Sprouted brown rice is also called GABA rice (GABA = 'gamma-aminobutyric acid' or γ-aminobutyric acid), which is said to contain particularly high levels of this natural neurotransmitter after a certain germination period. In Japan, this sprouted brown rice is known as 'Hatsuga Genmai' and is very popular. 20

Wholegrain rice contains significantly more vitamins, minerals and fiber and is therefore more nutritious than white rice. Wholegrain rice is also more filling and hunger does not return until much later after a wholegrain rice meal. 3.5

The lower glycemic index (GI) of brown rice (compared to white rice) means that blood sugar levels rise more slowly. If you eat white rice frequently, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. This was confirmed by a study carried out on people of Asian origin. 6 However, you can reduce the risk of developing diabetes by regularly eating whole grain products with valuable fiber (e.g. brown rice). 21 Read more about diabetes in the article Plant-based diet can prevent or cure type 2 diabetes .

Brown rice is gluten-free and therefore suitable for people who suffer from gluten sensitivity, gluten intolerance or even celiac disease. When buying, always look for warnings about foreign traces or a gluten-free symbol (eg the crossed-out ear of corn) on the product packaging.

Dangers - Intolerances - Side effects:

We can answer questions like Does Italian rice contain arsenic? as follows: In some rice-growing regions, the groundwater is heavily contaminated with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium due to the use of fertilizers and pesticides. Rice plants absorb these toxins through their roots and accumulate them mainly in the outer layers.

Unpeeled brown rice usually contains more arsenic than peeled white rice. But parboiled rice also performed worse than white rice in a test because the pressure process not only causes the vitamins and minerals from the outer layer to get inside, but also heavy metals. In addition, wet rice cultivation results in higher arsenic levels than dry rice cultivation. 22 These heavy metals can cause skin changes, vascular and kidney damage and cardiovascular diseases if consumed regularly. Inorganic arsenic is also considered a possible cause of cancer and can endanger the development of unborn children. 7,8 Please therefore follow our tips on preparation (above).

In addition to rice, rice-based products (such as rice cakes and rice flakes) can also be contaminated. Small children absorb arsenic more easily than adults, which is why children under three years of age should not be fed exclusively with rice products (including rice drinks). 9 Since 2016, an EU regulation has regulated the maximum levels of inorganic arsenic in food. 12

Folk medicine - natural healing:

The rice starch contained in it has an anti-irritant effect and is used in dusting powders, 10 but also as a bath additive for babies and small children.

Occurrence - origin - ecology:

The ancestor of cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa ), wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon ), probably originated in Southeast Asian river deltas. However, three independent domestication areas are known in the world: Asia, South America and Africa. People have probably been growing rice for over 6,000 years. 11 It is also assumed that people ate unhulled rice, i.e. whole grain rice, for a long time. White rice came much later, after people had invented the processes of hulling and polishing the rice grains.

In Asia, where rice is a staple food, China, India and other parts of Southeast Asia are the main rice-growing areas. 13 These areas produce more than 90% of the world's rice crop. Rice can also be grown in countries where the warm and humid climate allows rice to thrive. There are also important growing areas in Europe, such as the Po Valley (northern Italy) and the Rhône Delta (France). 11,16

Cultivation - Harvest:

For more detailed information on the cultivation and harvesting of rice, see the ingredient whole grain rice .

Ecological aspects:

Dry rice cultivation is much more environmentally and climate-friendly than wet rice cultivation. Water consumption is lower and dry rice cultivation produces significantly less methane. Methane emissions from wet rice cultivation account for around 10% of the methane produced by humans. 14 Whole grain rice cultivation is available in both conventional and organic forms . 15

You can read more about these topics at Naturreis .

General information about wholegrain rice:

Rice belongs to the grass family (Poaceae) and the genus Oryza . In addition to the classifications mentioned, sticky rice is also recognized as a separate variety: Oryza sativa var. glutinosa. Theoretically, all types (rice varieties) are available in brown (wholegrain, unhulled) and white (hulled) versions, including basmati rice and jasmine rice . Wild rice (genus Zizania ) is not a wild form of rice, but a water grass, which is why it is also called water rice.

Red rice from Sri Lanka or the Camargue is a popular gourmet whole grain rice (not to be confused with red mold rice), but Camargue rice is a long grain rice - just like red jasmine rice. Sadri rice is also a long grain rice (as is the smoked Sadri Dudi).

Alternative names of whole grain rice, medium grain:

Medium grain whole grain rice (wholemeal rice, whole grain rice) has the following synonyms: whole grain medium grain rice, natural rice, natural grain rice, cargo rice, whole rice, wholegrain rice, brown rice, brown medium grain rice, unhusked rice, unpolished rice, integral rice (integral rice).

Incorrect spellings such as brown rice, brown rice or brown rice recipe occur, but the term brown whole grain rice is also common.

In English, whole grain rice is called brown rice, unpolished rice or whole grain rice (whole-grain rice) - and medium grain rice is called medium grain rice (medium-grain rice).

The drug name refers to the rice starch and is known as Amylum oryzae. 10

Key words for use:

Rice processing produces waste products and by-products that are not suitable for human consumption. However, they are used to produce rice oil, wax and protein-rich feed flour. The husks of the rice grains can also be used for building boards and as polishing and fuel. Rice straw is used in livestock farming and as a weaving material for mats, sacks and hats. 17

Literature - Sources on whole grain rice:

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