Foundation for Diet and Health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

Lemon peel

Lemon peel has a delicious flavor. It is used in dishes either whole or grated. Make sure to only use the peel of organic citrus fruits.
90/08/02  LA:ALA
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Grated lemon peel from organic lemons is used to flavor a wide variety of dishes. For example, it adds a nice citrus flavor to many baked goods and sauces.

General information:

From Wikipedia: “The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a species of small evergreen tree native to Asia.

The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses. The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.”

For more information about lemons, pleas go to the following link:
--> Lemon, raw, without peel

Nutritional information:

The peel contains the essential oil citral with limonene (65–70 %), which contributes to the typical lemon flavor. Lemon peel also contains the following: “the bitter-tasting flavonoids neohesperidin and naringenin; the bioflavonoid rutin; hydroxycoumarins, furanocumarins, citric acid, and pectins.*”

Culinary uses:

“Lemon juice, rind, and zest are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks. ... Lemon juice and rind are used to make marmalade, lemon curd and lemon liqueur. Lemon slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings, rice, and other dishes.”

Citrus zest: From “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zest_(ingredient)”; “Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime. Zest is used to add flavor ("zest") to foods.

In terms of fruit anatomy, zest is obtained from the flavedo (exocarp) which is also referred to as zest. The flavedo and white pith (albedo) of a citrus fruit together makes up its peel. The amounts of both flavedo and pith are variable among citrus fruits, and may be adjusted by the manner in which they are prepared. Citrus peel may be used fresh, dried, candied, or pickled in salt.”

“The fungicide enilconazole (commonly known as Imazalil) is a known carcinogen widely used to grow citrus crops. An exposure standard governing the outer skin of a citrus fruit would likely differ from an exposure standard governing the fruit pulp.” For culinary purposes, you should therefore only use the zest from organic lemons.

Medicinal uses:

“Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon oil aroma does not influence the human immune system, but may contribute to relaxation.”

Note (italics): * = Translation from a German Wikipedia entry


Nutritional Information per 100g 2000 kCal
Energy 47 kcal2.4%
Fat/Lipids 0.3 g0.4%
Saturated Fats 0.04 g0.2%
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber) 16 g5.9%
Sugars 4.2 g4.6%
Fiber 11 g42.4%
Protein (albumin) 1.5 g3.0%
Cooking Salt (Na:6.0 mg)15 mg0.6%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Fat/Lipids
Carbohydrates
Protein (albumin)
Cooking Salt

Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal
VitVitamin C (ascorbic acid) 129 mg161.0%
ElemCalcium, Ca 134 mg17.0%
VitVitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.17 mg12.0%
MinCopper, Cu 0.09 mg9.0%
ElemPotassium, K 160 mg8.0%
VitFolate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 13 µg7.0%
MinIron, Fe 0.8 mg6.0%
VitRiboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.08 mg6.0%
VitThiamine (vitamin B1) 0.06 mg5.0%
VitPantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.32 mg5.0%

Detailed Nutritional Information per 100g for this Ingredient

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.


Essential fatty acids, (SC-PUFA) 2000 kCal
Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 0.06 g1.0%
Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0.03 g1.0%

Essential amino acids 2000 kCal

Vitamins 2000 kCal
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 129 mg161.0%
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.17 mg12.0%
Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 13 µg7.0%
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.08 mg6.0%
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.06 mg5.0%
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.32 mg5.0%
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 0.4 mg3.0%
Vitamin E, as a-TEs 0.25 mg2.0%
Vitamin A, as RAE 3 µg< 0.1%
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) 2000 kCal
Calcium, Ca 134 mg17.0%
Potassium, K 160 mg8.0%
Magnesium, Mg 15 mg4.0%
Phosphorus, P 12 mg2.0%
Sodium, Na 6 mg1.0%

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) 2000 kCal
Copper, Cu 0.09 mg9.0%
Iron, Fe 0.8 mg6.0%
Zinc, Zn 0.25 mg3.0%
Selenium, Se 0.7 µg1.0%
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