Foundation for Diet and Health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

Fennel seed

Fennel seed serves as the main spice for a variety of dishes. It can also be used to make an aromatic tea that is soothing for the stomach and intestines.
63/19/18  LA:ALA

Fennel seed is used as a spice or an ingredient for tea. The tea has an aromatic flavor and is soothing in the case of stomach pains or intestinal problems.

General information:

From Wikipedia: “Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the seacoast and on riverbanks.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.

Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in North America it may be used by the anise swallowtail.”


Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 m, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike), about 0.5 mm wide. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill, but thinner.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long, half as wide or less, and grooved.


“A 100-gram portion of fennel seeds provides 1,440 kilojoules (345 kilocalories) of food energy, and it is a rich source (more than 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals, especially calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV. Fennel seeds are 52% carbohydrates, 15% fat, 40% dietary fiber, 16% protein and 9% water.”

Culinary uses:

The bulb, foliage, and seeds of the fennel plant are used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel (known as fennel "pollen") are the most potent form of fennel, but also the most expensive. Dried fennel seed is an aromatic, anise-flavored spice, brown or green in color when fresh, slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. For cooking, green seeds are optimal. The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. Young tender leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, and also in soups and fish sauce.

Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise, which are similar in taste and appearance, though smaller. Fennel is also used as a flavoring in some natural toothpastes. The seeds are used in cookery and sweet desserts.

Many cultures in India and neighboring countries, Afghanistan, Iran, and the Middle East use fennel seed in cooking as one of the most important spices in Kashmiri Pandit and Gujarati cooking. It is an essential ingredient of the Assamese/Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. In many parts of India, roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas, an after-meal digestive and breath freshener, or candied as comfit.

Fennel seeds are the primary flavor component in Italian sausage. In Spain, the stems of the fennel plant are used in the preparation of pickled eggplants, berenjenas de Almagro. An herbal tea or tisane can be made from fennel.

Nutritional Information per 100g 2000 kCal
Energy 345 kcal17.2%
Fat/Lipids 15 g21.2%
Saturated Fats 0.48 g2.4%
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber) 52 g19.4%
Sugars n/a
Fiber 40 g159.2%
Protein (albumin) 16 g31.6%
Cooking Salt (Na:88.0 mg)224 mg9.3%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Protein (albumin)
Cooking Salt

Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal
MinManganese, Mn 6.5 mg327.0%
ElemCalcium, Ca 1'196 mg150.0%
MinIron, Fe 19 mg132.0%
MinCopper, Cu 1.1 mg107.0%
ElemMagnesium, Mg 385 mg103.0%
ProtTryptophan (Trp, W) 0.25 g102.0%
ElemPotassium, K 1'694 mg85.0%
ElemPhosphorus, P 487 mg70.0%
ProtThreonine (Thr, T) 0.6 g65.0%
ProtValine (Val, V) 0.92 g57.0%

Detailed Nutritional Information per 100g for this Ingredient

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids, (SC-PUFA) 2000 kCal
Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 1.7 g17.0%

Essential amino acids 2000 kCal
Tryptophan (Trp, W) 0.25 g102.0%
Threonine (Thr, T) 0.6 g65.0%
Valine (Val, V) 0.92 g57.0%
Isoleucine (Ile, I) 0.7 g56.0%
Phenylalanine (Phe, F) 0.65 g42.0%
Leucine (Leu, L) 1 g41.0%
Lysine (Lys, K) 0.76 g41.0%
Methionine (Met, M) 0.3 g32.0%

Vitamins 2000 kCal
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 6 mg38.0%
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.41 mg37.0%
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.47 mg34.0%
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 21 mg26.0%
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.35 mg25.0%
Vitamin A, as RAE 7 µg1.0%
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) 2000 kCal
Calcium, Ca 1'196 mg150.0%
Magnesium, Mg 385 mg103.0%
Potassium, K 1'694 mg85.0%
Phosphorus, P 487 mg70.0%
Sodium, Na 88 mg11.0%

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) 2000 kCal
Manganese, Mn 6.5 mg327.0%
Iron, Fe 19 mg132.0%
Copper, Cu 1.1 mg107.0%
Zinc, Zn 3.7 mg37.0%