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Star anise

Star anise is a spice obtained from the ripe fruit of Illicium verum. The fruit is also used to treat digestive problems and coughs.
The information we compiled for this ingredient complies with the standards ofthe USDA database.
27%
Water
 54
Macronutrient carbohydrates 53.57%
/09
Macronutrient proteins 9.29%
/37
Macronutrient fats 37.14%
 

The three ratios show the percentage by weight of macronutrients (carbohydrates / proteins / fats) of the dry matter (excl. water).

Ω-6 (LA, 2.6g)
Omega-6 fatty acid such as linoleic acid (LA)
 : Ω-3 (ALA, <0.1g)
Omega-3 fatty acid such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
 = !:0

Omega-6 ratio to omega-3 fatty acids should not exceed a total of 5:1. Link to explanation.

Here, essential linolenic acid (LA) 2.6 g and almost no alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).

Thanks to its sweet and licorice-like taste, star anise has long been a popular spice in winter time and is used to make favorites like gingerbread and Christmas tea. It is also has several medical uses, and is a common remedy in both traditional and modern medicine.

General information:
From Wikipedia: “Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China. A spice commonly called star anise, star anise seed, Chinese star anise or badiam that closely resembles anise in flavor is obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of the fruit of Illicium verum , which are harvested just before ripening. Star anise oil is a highly fragrant oil used in cooking, perfumery, soaps, toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. About 90% of the world's star anise crop is used for extraction of shikimic acid, a chemical intermediate used in the synthesis of "oseltamiv..".

Nomenclature:
“Illicium comes from the Latin illicio meaning "entice". In Persian, star anise is called بادیان bādiyān, hence its French name badiane.”

Culinary uses:
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient that gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking, as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liqueur Galliano. It is also used in the production of sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe. Star anise enhances the flavour of meat. It is used as a spice in preparation of biryani and masala chai all over the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, and in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay and Indonesian cuisines. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is also used in the French recipe of mulled wine: called vin chaud (hot wine). If allowed to steep in coffee, it deepens and enriches the flavor. These pods can be reused in this manner, by the pot-full or cup, many times as the ease of extraction of the gustatory components increases with the permeation of hot water.

Medicinal uses:
“Star anise is the major source of the chemical compound shikimic acid, a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug "oseltamiv.." ("Tamif.."). Shikimic acid is produced by most autotrophic organisms, and whilst it can be obtained in commercial quantities elsewhere, star anise remains the usual industrial source. In 2005, a temporary shortage of star anise was caused by its use in the production of "Tamif..". Later that year, a method for the production of shikimic acid using bacteria was discovered. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermentation by E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages, as stocks of "Tamif.." were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.

Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. It is also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a 10-stage manufacturing process which takes a year.

In traditional Chinese medicine, star anise is considered a warm and moving herb, and used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao.”

Japanese star anise:
Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is highly toxic and inedible; in Japan, it has instead been burned as incense. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea, may be a result of deliberate economically motivated adulteration with this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract, and digestive organs. The toxicity of I. anisatum, also known as shikimi, is caused by its potent neurotoxins anisatin, neoanisatin, and pseudoanisatin, which are noncompetitive antagonists of GABA receptors.”

Nutrient tables

The complete nutritional information, coverage of the daily requirement and comparison values with other ingredients can be found in the following nutrient tables.

Nutritional Information
per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Energy381 kcal
1'593 kJ
19.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 2000kcal
Fat/Lipids26 g37.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 70g
Saturated Fats1.0 g5.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 20g
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber)38 g13.9%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 270g
Sugars29 g32.2%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 90g
Fiber6.8 g27.2%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 25g
Protein/Albumin6.5 g13.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 50g
Cooking Salt (Na:16.0 mg)41 mg1.7%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA: 2.4g
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Fat/Lipids
Carbohydrates
Protein/Albumin
Cooking Salt

Essential micronutrients with the highest proportions per 100g 2000 kcal
MinIron, Fe 37 mg264.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 14 mg
MinManganese, Mn 2.3 mg115.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2.0 mg
MinCopper, Cu 0.90 mg90.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.0 mg
ElemCalcium, Ca 650 mg81.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg
ElemPotassium, K 1'440 mg72.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2'000 mg
ElemPhosphorus, P 440 mg63.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 700 mg
MinZinc, Zn 5.3 mg53.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 10 mg
ElemMagnesium, Mg 170 mg45.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 375 mg
ProtTryptophan (Trp, W) 0.08 g32.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.25 g
VitThiamine (vitamin B1) 0.30 mg27.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.1 mg

Detailed micronutrients and daily requirement coverage per 100g

Explanations of nutrient tables in general

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 2.6 g26.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the CH-EDI-Verordnung: 10 g
Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0 g< 0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the CH-EDI-Verordnung: 2.0 g

Essential amino acids per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Tryptophan (Trp, W) 0.08 g32.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.25 g
Threonine (Thr, T) 0.20 g22.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.93 g
Lysine (Lys, K) 0.40 g22.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.9 g
Valine (Val, V) 0.32 g20.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.6 g
Isoleucine (Ile, I) 0.24 g19.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.2 g
Phenylalanine (Phe, F) 0.28 g18.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 1.6 g
Leucine (Leu, L) 0.40 g17.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 2.4 g
Methionine (Met, M) 0.12 g13.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the WHO-Protein-2002: 0.93 g

Vitamins per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.30 mg27.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.1 mg
Biotin (ex vitamin B7, H) 10 µg20.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 50 µg
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.20 mg14.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 2.3 mg14.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 16 mg
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.20 mg14.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.4 mg
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.50 mg8.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 6.0 mg

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Calcium, Ca 650 mg81.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg
Potassium, K 1'440 mg72.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2'000 mg
Phosphorus, P 440 mg63.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 700 mg
Magnesium, Mg 170 mg45.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 375 mg
Sodium, Na 16 mg2.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 800 mg

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) per 100g 2000 kcal

The numbers show the percent of the recommended daily value for a person who consumes 2000 cal per day. This number is for one serving of the recipe.

A person normally eats multiple times a day and consumes additional nutrients. You can get all of the nutrients you need over a longer period of time and in this way ensure a healthy balance.

Iron, Fe 37 mg264.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 14 mg
Manganese, Mn 2.3 mg115.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 2.0 mg
Copper, Cu 0.90 mg90.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 1.0 mg
Zinc, Zn 5.3 mg53.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 10 mg
Iod, I (Jod, J) 5.0 µg3.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the EU: LMIV-2011: 150 µg
Authors: Melanie Scherer |

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