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Barley, hulled (barley grains, raw?, organic?)

Peeled barley (raw?) tastes good when sprouted or cooked. Barley grains are rich in minerals and fiber and are a healthy alternative to wheat. Organic?
Macronutrient carbohydrates 83.25%
Macronutrient proteins 14.14%
Macronutrient fats 2.61%

The three ratios show the percentage by weight of macronutrients (carbohydrates / proteins / fats) of the dry matter (excl. water).

Ω-6 (LA, 1g)
Omega-6 fatty acid such as linoleic acid (LA)
 : Ω-3 (ALA, 0.1g)
Omega-3 fatty acid such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
 = 9:1

Omega-6 ratio to omega-3 fatty acids should not exceed a total of 5:1. Link to explanation.

Here, essential linolenic acid (LA) 1 g to essential alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) 0.11 g = 9.08:1.
Ratio Total omega-6 = 1 g to omega-3 fatty acids Total = 0.11 g = 9.08:1.
On average, we need about 2 g of LA and ALA per day from which a healthy body also produces EPA and DHA, etc.

In contrast to wheat and spelt, barley grains ( Hordeum vulgare ) contain little gluten and are very healthy. Whole barley grains ( hulled ) are available in organic quality ( organic ), but only sprouted or naked barley is capable of germinating ( raw ).

Using barley (hulled) in the kitchen:

What is barley used for? Barley (hulled) has a nutty taste and contains many vitamins, fiber and minerals. It is rarely used in the kitchen these days, but it is very healthy and has many uses. In the poorer regions of Asia and Africa, barley is still used to make bread, but in Europe it is primarily used for animal feed and beer production.

What is barley made from? Barley is available in the form of whole grains, naked barley (polished only), pearl barley (groats), groats, flakes, flour or malt syrup . Barley flakes (organic) or barley meal are used in muesli , while peeled pearl barley is wonderful in salads, stews and soups or for barley risotto. Pearl barley should be soaked before use to shorten the cooking time. In the form of groats, barley is used as a side dish, porridge, in casseroles and patties. If you use barley instead of rice, you can cook a delicious risotto from barley (orzo risotto, barley risotto, barley risotto).

You can find many vegan recipes with barley on the internet. Barley can also be eaten raw (fresh grain porridge, sprouts, sprouts). Instructions on how to sprout can be found below (under "Preparing barley").

Peeled barley is only suitable as flour for making bread to a limited extent, as it has a low gluten content and the dough hardly rises when baked. Often only experienced bakers manage to bake a pure barley bread. Tsampa, a roasted flour made from barley grains, is considered a traditional staple food in Tibet. The nutty-tasting barley flour can also be used in breakfast porridge or to thicken soups and sauces.

What do you make from barley? Peeled barley is also used as a coffee substitute (grain coffee or malt coffee). Malt coffee is also known colloquially as "muckefuck". Beer and whiskey can also be made from the nutrient-rich grains. When barley germinates, malt is produced, which is then processed into malt syrup or malt sugar .

Vegan recipe for fresh grain muesli with barley:

Ingredients (for 1 portion): 3 tablespoons of grain (e.g. sprouted grain: oats , barley; rye or spelt ), water , lemon juice (from approx. ¼ lemon, including pulp), ½ banana , ½-1 apple (depending on size), 1 tablespoon of linseed , a few nuts (e.g. walnuts , macadamia nuts ) and/or some unpeeled hemp seeds , fresh seasonal fruit. Depending on taste: fresh ginger, fresh turmeric, grated lemon peel, cinnamon.

Preparation: For this fresh grain muesli, coarsely grind the grain mixture the evening before (in a coffee or grain mill) and mix with a little cold drinking water (don't use too much water); then leave to stand overnight at room temperature. You can either grind the linseed now or crush it with a mortar the next morning; you can also add whole oat grains. The next morning, puree the squeezed lemon juice (with pulp) together with half a banana (or mash half a banana), grate the apple and mix everything together - possibly together with freshly crushed linseed. Add everything to the grain mixture and optionally refine with freshly grated ginger root, turmeric, grated lemon peel or cinnamon. Wash the fresh fruit (and chop it up), fold in half and arrange the remaining fruit decoratively on top. Chop the nuts and sprinkle them on top (together with hemp seeds).

Recipe for barley tea or barley water:

What is barley water? Barley water or barley tea is a drink made by boiling peeled barley grains in water and letting it steep for several hours. Barley tea effect: In folk medicine, barley water is considered an ancient remedy for strengthening and reducing fever.

Preparation: Soak 100 g of peeled barley grains (organic) for 3-5 hours, wash thoroughly, bring to the boil in 2 liters of water and then simmer for 2 hours until the liquid has reduced to 1 liter of water. Remove the barley grains using a sieve and drink the tea refined with fresh lemon juice (organic) and honey . 1 Also suitable: ginger, cinnamon, cloves and anise.

Vegan recipes with hulled barley can be found under the note: " Recipes that have the most of this ingredient ".

Not only vegans or vegetarians should read this:
Vegans often eat unhealthily. Avoidable nutritional mistakes

Shopping - where to buy hulled barley?

Where can you buy hulled barley? Hulled barley (splenished barley, raw, organic) or naked barley (still capable of germinating) can usually be found in health food stores, organic shops, organic supermarkets ( Denn's Biomarkt , Alnatura ) and online shops. Look for the labels sprouted barley and whole grain.

Hulled barley is easily confused with rolled barley (barley groats, cooking barley). Since it cannot be ruled out that the term "hulled barley" also refers to hulled rolled barley (barley groats), we recommend asking if in doubt. Rolled barley (also pearl barley, pearl groats) is rounder, usually smaller than hulled barley and is available in supermarkets such as Coop , Migros , Inter Spar , Edeka or Rewe . Major retailers such as Denner , Volg , Aldi , Lidl and Hofer hardly stock rolled barley or whole barley grains in their standard range, let alone in raw food quality.

Preparing barley (barley grains):

Cooking barley: First, wash the dehulled barley thoroughly in cold water. To shorten the preparation time, soak barley grains in water before cooking, which also preserves the nutrients and saves energy. How long do you have to soak barley? Let the washed grains swell at room temperature for 10-12 hours in 2 to 2.5 times the amount of unsalted water. This also breaks down some of the phytic acid they contain.

How long do you need to cook hulled barley and naked barley? Hulled barley and naked barley are long-cooking grains. After soaking, the barley grains need to cook for 30-45 minutes and then soak for about 30-60 minutes. 3

Germinate barley: Only unpolished, whole barley grains can germinate - pearl barley does not germinate. When it comes to barley, naked barley or gently dehusked barley is therefore the most suitable, preferably organic. Germinated grain (e.g. barley sprouts) is considered very healthy due to its high vitamin and mineral content. Thanks to their nutty, sweet taste, sprouts can be added raw to muesli, salads or soups. Or you can use them to refine bread mixes and to garnish dishes.

You can grow the seeds in a germination machine, germination device or a simple germination jar. If you use a germination jar, you soak the grains in water directly in the jar (approx. 6 hours). After soaking, rinse the seeds twice a day with fresh water. To do this, fill the jar with water and then let the liquid drain off again. Do not place the jar directly in the sun, as this will cause the grains to germinate too much or dry out. After about three days, the sprouts are ready to harvest. One cup of peeled barley grains yields approx. two cups of fresh barley sprouts (raw). 2

Storing hulled barley:

What is the best way to store grain ? If stored correctly, hulled barley grains can be kept raw for several years. The grains should have a moisture content of 14%. A dark, dry and odor-free cellar or pantry is ideal for storage. Storing in the refrigerator is not recommended as it is too cold and damp. Store hulled barley grains in breathable linen and cotton bags. This will prevent mold from forming. Shaking the grain occasionally will help with ventilation and will also have a positive effect on its shelf life. Make sure that no pests such as flour moths can penetrate the grain.

Ingredients - Barley nutritional values ​​- Calories:

There are major differences in the composition of ingredients depending on the cultivar (genetics) and origin (environmental conditions), which in the case of barley are not primarily limited to the processing method. According to scientific studies, the protein content of whole grain barley varies between 10 and 20% and the fiber content even between 11 and 34% (of which beta-glucan is 2-11%). The following comparisons are based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture - but may differ from European products. 15

Nutritional value: 100 g of peeled barley contains 73 g of carbohydrates and has an energy content of 354 kcal. It is very filling with 17 g of fiber and has a low fat content (2.3 g). The 12 g of protein contained in the barley grains can be compared to semolina (raw, organic) and raw buckwheat . Spelt (15 g) and the pseudo-cereal amaranth (14 g) are slightly richer in protein. 4

Raw barley grains contain 1.9 mg/100g of manganese , which makes up 97% of the daily requirement. A similar amount is found in sprouted wheat (1.8 mg/100g) and raw quinoa (2 mg/100g). Wheat germ contains significantly more manganese at 13 mg/100g. 4

The proportion of tryptophan accounts for around 84% of the daily requirement when consuming 100 g of peeled barley and a daily intake of around 2000 kcal. The content of 0.21 g/100g can be compared with oats (0.23 g/100g). Hemp seeds (0.37 g/100g) and chia seeds (0.44 g/100g) have a high tryptophan content. 4

The 38 µg of selenium contained in 100 g of barley covers 69% of the daily human requirement. Wheat flour has a comparable proportion (40 µg/100g). The content is significantly higher in Kamut or Khorasan wheat (82 µg/100g). 4

The complete ingredients of barley, peeled, the coverage of the daily requirement and comparison values ​​with other ingredients can be found in our nutrient tables. In the article Nutrients explained you will get a detailed insight into the topic.

Health aspects - effects:

Why is barley healthy? The proteins in barley have a high biological value. Together with the fiber it contains, barley is long-lastingly filling, increases intestinal volume and stimulates digestion. Hulled barley can relieve digestive problems such as inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), digestive problems, duodenal ulcers, inflammation of the stomach and intestines and inflammation of the colon. Barley water can also help with digestive problems. Eating hulled barley can also lower total cholesterol levels, LDL cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels. 5

The dietary fiber beta-glucan is responsible for the cholesterol-lowering properties of barley. Beta-glucan is also said to support the immune system and reduce the risk of arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and cancer. 6

Is pearl barley healthy? Pearl barley, peeled, contains fewer vitamins, fiber and minerals than unpolished barley, as the nutrient-rich outer layers are removed during grinding or polishing. Despite the lower nutrient content, pearl barley is also healthy, filling and still contains a lot of fiber. Barley groats are easier to digest than whole grain barley.

Dangers - intolerances - side effects:

People suffering from celiac disease should avoid eating barley (hulled) as it contains gluten 7 (more than rye, but less than spelt and wheat 18 ). For more information on the food intolerance celiac disease, see the article Semolina, raw (organic?) .

Barley: Use as a medicinal plant

Not only the barley grains, but also barley grass (raw) is considered very healthy and contains a variety of vitamins, minerals, enzymes and antioxidants. It is available as a powder or in the form of capsules and tablets. Barley grass promotes sleep, regulates blood pressure, strengthens the immune system, has a detoxifying effect, improves gastrointestinal function, is anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and prevents cardiovascular diseases. 8

Folk medicine - naturopathy:

Dehulled barley is also used in naturopathy. Barley water is considered an ancient remedy. It was used in the past to reduce fever, to drain and to strengthen. It is said to have a cooling and moisturizing effect and to provide relief from menopausal symptoms. Barley is also said to soothe mucous membranes in the gastrointestinal area and to have a mild laxative effect on feelings of fullness and constipation. In Japan, barley tea is still drunk today to prevent stress-related stomach ulcers. Barley sprouts (raw food) are also said to have a draining and fever-reducing effect.

​​​Occurrence - Origin:

What is barley? Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ), like wheat, belongs to the sweet grass family (Poaceae). Barley is often referred to as an ancient grain because it is considered to be the oldest cultivated type of grain. It originally comes from the Near East, where barley was first cultivated around 4,000 BC. In ancient Egypt, barley was considered a staple food and it was also one of the most important types of grain for the Greeks.

Where is barley grown? Today, barley is mainly grown in Europe, Russia, Canada and the USA.

Barley plant: cultivation - harvest

When growing barley, a distinction is made between winter barley and summer barley. When is barley grown? The more productive winter barley is sown in September. If temperatures remain below 15 °C for a long time, the barley plants freeze. Before winter, the barley forms side shoots, and in spring the ears with the grains appear. Summer barley is grown from the end of February to the beginning of April. Summer barley takes 110-130 days from sowing to harvest. 9

Barley is a self-pollinating plant and is an undemanding plant that grows even in extreme locations or under unfavorable conditions. It thrives best in moist, deep soils. Diseases such as mildew, smut and so-called foot diseases can occur during cultivation; fungi (e.g. Fusarium graminearum ) and viruses can also cause crop failure.

The barley grains are harvested at the end of July to the beginning of August. After harvesting, the barley grains must be dried, otherwise they risk becoming moldy.

Industrial production:

In hulled barley, the grain and the inedible husks are firmly fused together. The grains must therefore be hulled in hulling mills before consumption. This often causes damage, which impairs the germination capacity of the grains. Excessively high husk temperatures are also detrimental to germination.

What is pearl barley? Once the barley has been dehulled, it can be processed into pearl barley (barley groats, cooking barley) . The peeled barley grains are ground and polished. Machines remove the nutrient-rich fruit and seed shells as well as the bran, and round grains are created.

To produce barley groats, drum groat cutters cut the polished barley into fine, medium and coarse barley groats, depending on the setting. The barley parts that are smaller than 1 mm are then referred to as groats .

A special variety or breed is naked barley ( Hordeum vulgare var. nudum ). In contrast to hulled barley, it has loose husks that fall off during threshing and is sold unhulled as whole grain. From a nutritional psychology perspective, naked barley is therefore considered to be of higher quality than hulled cultivated barley, because the nutrient-rich fruit and seed shell is completely preserved. 10,16,17

General information:

Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) belongs to the genus of barley ( Hordeum ) and exists in a wide variety of forms (structure). The grains can be naked or hulled and the ears can be densely or loosely eared, awned or unawned and multi-rowed or two-rowed. They can differ in their husk length and grain color. Two-row forms only form one grain per attachment point. They are said to have better grain quality, be more stable and straw-stable. Multi-row plants, on the other hand, form several grains per attachment point. They are considered to be more productive, more stress-resistant and more winter-hardy. In comparison to the two-row form, however, the grains develop somewhat weaker. 11,12

Alternative names:

Hulled barley is actually dehulled barley. Sometimes the term "hulled barley" can also refer to rolled barley, which is not only dehulled (hulled) but also milled.

In English, dehulled barley is called barley or hulled barley ( dehulled barley ), 17 in French as orge , in Spanish as cebada , in Russian as ячмень в шелухе and in Turkish as kabuklu arpa . Naked barley is called in English naked barley, 16 hullless barley or hull-less barley.

How do you pronounce barley? Barley is a two-syllable word that is broken up as follows: "Gers·te". The phonetic spelling of barley is [ˈgɛʁstə]. 13

Key words for the use of barley:

Winter barley is primarily used as animal feed for livestock. Farmers also use the hay from the barley plant as valuable animal feed. 14

Literature - Sources:

Bibliography - 15 Sources Gerstenwasser - Wirkung und Anwendung. Verfasser: Susanne Waschke. Gerstensprossen ziehen. Kochen mit Vollkorn leicht gemacht.
4.USDA United States Department of Agriculture.
5.J.D.Pamplona Roger. Heilkräfte der Nahrung, Praxishandbuch. Advent-Verlag Zürich. 3. Auflage 2008.
6.Ciecierska A, Drywień ME, Hamulka J, Sadkowski T. Nutraceutical functions of beta-glucans in human nutrition. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2019;70(4):315–24.
7.Rubio-Tapia A, Hill ID, Kelly CP, Calderwood AH, Murray JA, American College of Gastroenterology. ACG clinical guidelines: diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. Mai 2013;108(5):656–76; quiz 677.
8.Zeng Y, Pu X, Yang J, Du J, Yang X, Li X, u. a. Preventive and therapeutic role of functional ingredients of barley grass for chronic diseases in human beings. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018. Pflanzensteckbrief Gerste. Nacktgerste. Gerstensorten. Einzeilige und mehrzeilige Gerste. Wie spricht man Gerste aus?
14.Rehm S, Espig G. Die Kulturpflanzen der Tropen und Subtropen. Verlag Eugen Ulmer: Stuttgart. 1976.
15.The increasing use of barley and barley by-products in the production of healthier baked goods. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 1. Februar 2013;29(2):124–34.
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