White wine is an alcoholic drink produced by fermenting the pulp of grapes. Many people enjoy drinking a glass of white wine to complement their meal.
From Wikipedia: “White wine is a wine whose color can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold coloured.
It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-colored pulp of grapes, which may have a white or black skin. It is treated so as to maintain a yellow transparent color in the final product. The wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, and also the ratio of residual sugar. ...
The white grapes from which white wine is mainly produced are green or yellow of which there are many so that white wine can be produced anywhere that grapes can be grown. Some varieties are well known such as the Chardonnay, Sauvignon, and Riesling. Others have a discreet existence hidden behind the name of a wine resulting from the assembly of several varieties. Tokay, Sherry, and Sauternes are examples of these. The winemaker can also use a variety with a coloured skin provided one is careful not to stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. The Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne.”
Types of white wine:
“Among the many types of white wine, dry white wine is the most common. More or less aromatic and tangy, it is derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines, whether moelleux (Sweet: 12-45 g/l of sugar) or liquoreux (Fortified: >45 g/l sugar) wines are where the fermentation is interrupted before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol: this is called Mutage or fortification. The methods of enriching wort with sugar are multiple: on-ripening on the vine, passerillage (straining), or the use of Noble rot. Sparkling wines, which are mostly white wines, are wines where the carbon dioxide from the fermentation is kept dissolved in the wine and becomes gas when the bottle is opened giving a delicate foam beverage considered the festive wine par excellence.
Celebrated by writers, poets, singers and painters, white wine is used as an Apéritif during the meal, with dessert, or as a refreshing drink between meals. They are more refreshing, lighter in both style and taste than the majority of their red wine counterparts, making them ideal for spring and summer occasions. The old guideline of “white wine with white meat” still holds true in many instances, but there are plenty of exceptions and palate preferences that dictate which wines to pair with what foods. As an example, Chardonnay combines well with the taste of fleur de lis (triple cream cheese).
White wine also contributes to the development of dishes in the kitchen thanks to its acidity, aroma, and its ability to soften meat and deglaze the cooking juices. Its benefits to the body are however lower than those attributed to red wine because it is low in polyphenolic compounds.”
“White wine is regularly used as an ingredient. Its acidity balances well with fat taking away excess heaviness. This acidity also refines the meat or fish and it helps to break down the fibres of the meat to make it tender. The role of white wine is similar to that of lemon juice used under the same conditions: once verjuice also fulfilled this function. The vinegar combines acidity with a burning sensation that gives recipes where it is used a bittersweet side characteristic.
As a means to balance the fat white wine is involved in the preparation of sauces such as ravigote sauce, béarnaise sauce, marinara sauce, etc. The drippings of cooking juices is also a role that white wine can be used in; made with a sweet white wine and giving a sour-sweet or sweet-salt sauce. In cheese fondue the liveliness of dry white wine is balanced with the fat of the cheese. The freshness of the wine as a table drink contrasts the heat of the fondue.
In marinades its power to soften the protein fibre is used. Sometimes it can even happen in cooking such as in Italian-style tuna carpaccio.
White wine is also used as a wetting agent for slow cooking. In this type of dish it combines the flexibility of the meat and balances the fat from the sauce. It plays this role in the case of cabbage, baeckeoffe or risotto, and in the gravy in the preparation of white meat as in osso buco or Blanquette de veau (veal stew), Chicken with morels and its variants, Chicken à la comtoise and Yellow Coq au vin, rabbit or with charcuterie such as Diots and tripe. It can also be used to prepare fish and seafood dishes such as pôchouse with Burgundy wine, monkfish stew, Flounder stew, mussels in white wine, or a Seafood Pot-au-feu.
A common rule by gourmets is to serve at table the same wine that has been used in cooking.”
“White wine has existed for at least 2500 years. It has accompanied economic development and colonized every country whose inhabitants are wine drinkers: Europe, America, Oceania, although less systematically in Africa and Asia due to climate and religious reasons.”