Best book about milk and dairy products that includes scientific studies and draws convincing conclusions about calcium and allergens.
© CC-by 2.0, Catalina Sparleanu, PhD, Foundation Diet and Health Switzerland
The information in this book is based on scientific research. It provides readers with an entirely different view of milk (and dairy products). It's true that every food has its advantages and disadvantages, and that the disadvantages become apparent when larger amounts are consumed.
But the disadvantages of milk are so numerous and serious that some scientists refer to it as the most important food that you should avoid. This is why so many books have been written that are critical of milk.
We are so heavily influenced by the industry, politics (lobbying), medicine, and the media that I probably shouldn't put the conclusions at the beginning. If you doubt the veracity of the statements below, please read through the collection of about 50 scientific papers provided by Maria Rollinger — the content and links are in English.
I can only recommend that you read this book because—despite my long and detailed book review—there is much evidence and proof that I could not include in my text. The summary here only shows the relationship between consumption and health. This and other topics relevant to milk appear in the discussion after the conclusion and summary.
The high calcium content of milk is not good for us, and when we consume more dairy products, our risk of osteoporosis increases. See also the image and text below.
A comparison between West Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) shows the same. According to Harvard Medical School in the United States and other studies, milk (and dairy products) also cause an increase of ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. This is probably due to the large number of growth hormones present in milk and dairy products. Since milk severely neutralizes stomach acids, the gastric mucosal barrier (mucin) does not function or becomes weak. And thus growth hormones can enter the bloodstream.
Cardiovascular diseases also occur because of the high cholesterol content of dairy products. The cholesterol levels of milk is sometimes higher than that of meat.
Concerning Parkinson's disease, studies at Harvard University have shown that consuming dairy products several times a day can lead to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease in men, but not in women. The results of this study were confirmed multiple times between 2002 and 2007, primarily by Chen.
In the case of autism, there is usually a functional disorder of the intestine. This leads to the release of larger protein particles (peptides) into the bloodstream before they are fully digested and has adverse effects. A diet free of dairy and gluten (GFDF diet) can bring significant improvement.
The author criticizes the medical system for the fact that patients with acne (acne vulgaris) and eczema (atopic dermatitis) are treated for months or years with cortisone and the like without any great success. It is only when they take the time to research that they learn how they can easily avoid allergens. Then they usually experience long-term success or are even cured.
The main allergen is most often milk.
But in my opinion, you should also switch to a gluten-free casein-free diet (GFCF diet). If you strictly adhere to this diet, you will see results in just two weeks. Having a medical examination that includes skin and blood tests to identify allergens can bring results if the steps mentioned above do not work.
Even in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, histamines have been found in the inflamed areas of affected joints. People who suffer from this condition develop antibodies against certain foods, often milk proteins.
ADD (attention deficit disorder) and ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) are also linked to diet. The author writes that
anyone who has ever watched a child who is playing quietly and then goes berserk half an hour after eating a chocolate bar knows what we are talking about.
She goes on to say that we shouldn't be surprised that
so many children who eat primarily pasta, pizza, bread, hot dogs, chocolate milk, candy bars, pudding, and ice cream, develop these kinds of diseases. After all, all of these foods contain gluten and milk proteins. She then recommends valuable books on the subject.
Exorphins are protein fragments that resemble opiates and have the same effect:
they make people happy and addicted, are calming, and reduce pain. These exorphins that can make you happy are found, most notably, in grains (gluten) and in milk. Digestion converts βα1-casein into the strongest-acting opioid β-casomorphin 7. Casomorphins then get into the bloodstream and into the brain.
Lifestyle diseases such as (ADD) in children, depression in adults (major depressive disorder), autism, schizophrenia, type 1 diabetes mellitus (infants given cow's milk too soon), and heart disease can be caused by milk consumption.
Milk protein is made up of about 80 % casein protein and 20 % whey protein. Apart from protein in eggs (egg allergy), milk proteins are the most frequent cause of true food allergies, particularly in the case of young children.
While the above is true for all people, the following is only an issue if lactose intolerance is present. For the large majority of people who are lactose intolerant, lactose can cause mild to severe digestive problems that can have a variety of harmful effects. This book also covers other very rare diseases that for genetic reasons can result from milk consumption.
© CC-by 2.0, Swiss Milk
The cooperative association of Swiss Milk Producers (SMP) has used and uses a cow with the name Lovely in its Swissmilk commercials. Doing tricks on skis and skateboards, this Freiberg dairy cow gives the impression that milk builds especially strong bones. However, the Swiss Federal Office for Health (Bundesamt für gesundheit, BAG) intervened, and in 2001 the Supreme Court of Switzerland held that the slogans "Milk builds strong bones" and "Milk gives you strong bones" as well as the message that the calcium in milk prevents osteoporosis may no longer be used in Switzerland. Art. 19 para. 1 lit. c LMV, art. 10 ECHR, Art. 27 BV, Art. 18 LMG.
Since the visual statement wasn’t banned, the advertisement simply continued to run without the slogan. I believe that this is deception at the highest level because even Swissmilk must know that if a cow falls down in a milking stall, it will probably break some bones and then "must" be killed. For several years, I owned 75 cows (for manure for organic bananas) and my own milk processing and marketing business. Here is a picture as an example of how the dairy industry lies to us. When I made an inquiry by phone, I was told that I was in no way allowed to use the image and was threatened with court action. Here it is as documentation.
In the past,
slow fermentation in the rye or wheat caused the gluten to disappear, but today we grow grains that have the highest gluten content possible. It is the same with milk and dairy products.
It is only as a result of the great increase in milk consumption that illnesses are appearing that we didn't have or didn't have to this extent in times without any or with a lower milk consumption.
With milk, it often takes a long time for an illness to manifest, and the connections between milk proteins, lactose, and health problems are therefore not immediately obvious.
According to the book No milk by Dr. Daniel A. Twogood, the list above should be extended to include chronic neck pain, back pain, and/or headaches. Read the compelling book review. The author speaks about the experience he gained from working with over 3,000 cases.
At first, cattle were used mainly as draft animals and for meat. For about 3,500 years, they have also been used for their milk so that butter could be made. Cheese was only produced much later, and in about the year 1850, those in the higher levels of society began to drink milk.
Through breeding and using hormones and antibiotics, we have about tripled the weight of cows. As early as the Middle Ages, the milk yield for butter production was able to be increased from 300 to 600 liters per cow per year (p. 27). Today, the capacity of a cow is between 8'000 and 18'000 liters per year. Cows get inseminated just a few weeks after they give birth to a calf so that after the lactation period of about 310 days, they can have another calf as soon as possible and again produce milk.
Concentrated feed (fodder) instead of grass is the motto. We are shown the meat breeds that are allowed to graze freely, because they don’t have to give milk. However, there are exceptions, in particular, in the Alps in the summer.
Today, milk contains so much fat that a calf cannot drink it without getting sick.
But either way, calves are given substitute milk, which is called commercial milk replacer. The calf is not even allowed to suckle directly from the mother’s udder in order to get the very important colostrum (beestings, bisnings, or first milk).
Increasing industrialization of the dairy industry began after World War II and consisted of a large variety of processes, which Maria Rollinger explains in very understandable terms. This industrialization is also reflected in animal husbandry of cows and calves, which the author also describes.
It was not until about 1950 that milk production and processing (dairy industry, dairy farming, and creameries) began to multiply, which ended up making milk and dairy products become a central part of our diet (nutrition).
This development of dairy products becoming a main food item goes hand in hand with a huge increase in lifestyle diseases. The author avoids directly linking these though because too many other developments have taken place simultaneously.
Milk and dairy products contain a wide range of substances, which act very differently in each individual person—and that's the problem. As a result, the possible consequences of consuming dairy products are unfortunately quite varied. The book and the information presented here are therefore sometimes challenging to understand.
She specifically deals with the reasons for diseases that are mainly caused by poor nutrition. She shows the path of absorption (food intake into the blood), processing by organs (e.g., in the small intestine), effects in the target area, and the resulting health problems.
She also compares countries that have only recently started to consume milk. Japan, for instance, which has the same stressful environment, but a completely different diet (nutrition). The differences include the fact that Japan has a very low rate of osteoporosis (brittle bones).
The author also explains the reasons for this and why Japanese people living in the United States have the same problems that we do after they have switched to the Western diet. She also shows how the dairy industry is even able to persuade lactose-intolerant people to consume dairy products.
She emphasizes why people who are lactose intolerant suffer even more than people who descended from northern Europeans. Thanks to a previous mutation, northern Europeans can tolerate milk quite well. But even they are not protected from the diseases listed above.
However, these processes are not the only factors involved in the milk disaster.
The author states that we really no longer even associate the white milk we drink with the animal it comes from and therefore no longer recognize it as a body fluid from an entirely different species.
It is very difficult to completely cut out milk and dairy products, but it is worth it—no matter whether you are sick or healthy. Look around and you will see how many people are already suffering at a relatively young age from unnecessary lifestyle diseases.
Two more book reviews show other reasons why this is the case. These book reviews are on the China Study and on Salt, Sugar, and Fat. And the book MILK The Deadly Poison takes up the problem of milk as well, providing a slightly different perspective. The links will bring you to the book reviews.
In the preface, Ulrike Martin Plonka, research assistant for Milk, better Not!, points out that
the dairy industry is increasingly working to open up new markets in traditionally dairy-free countries. However, in these countries the people are usually lactose intolerant. The opening of new markets is carried out under the guise of development assistance (development cooperation and aid) with the support of governments. Yet these people will suffer even greater health disadvantages in the future than we will.
Ulrike Martin Plonka explains that the best formula for infants (baby food), (a topic not discussed in the book) is
to nurse as long as possible, and that one should try to manage without using milk from other animals if possible.
It is astounding that milk consumption critics are often portrayed as untrustworthy, when the history of milk, the statistics, knowledge of current production methods, and ultimately the studies conducted by renowned scientists tell a different story.
I quote here the most important message and question so that you can become familiar with the author's rigorous and fluid style.
Despite the propaganda of fit and sprightly people who are always ready to perform, we feel increasingly less healthy. Our life expectancy is increasing, so they say. But what good is a statistically long life, when a sudden heart attack can kill a 53-year-old or a 45-year-old gets breast cancer. Parkinson's disease, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease are occurring at increasingly young ages, and tumor diseases are beginning to affect more and more people of all ages.
Why is it that an increasing number of children are developing diabetes, asthma attacks, middle ear infections, and skin rashes, that attention deficient disorder (ADD) is something we encounter on a regular basis, and that intestinal problems, circulatory disorders, osteoporosis in women and in men, eczema, allergies, and food intolerances not only make childrens' but also adults' lives a misery?
Could it be that milk, the modern all-purpose food, has a part in this development? That it is not as healthy as is suggested by advertising, the food industry, and nutritional science?
In the introduction, Maria Rollinger clears up a misunderstanding regarding the importance and use of milk in biblical times. She explains the meaning of the Promised Land,
where milk and honey flows as described in the Torah and in the Bible (Exodus 3:7–8 and Genesis 13:14f) about 3,300 years ago.
Because milk was not drunk until the late nineteenth century, but was instead processed into butter and cheese (p. 18).
While butter and concentrated butter (clarified butter) are simple to make, it was not until the ancient Greeks and Romans that good cheese was successfully produced. Vegetable fat could be obtained only as oil. Fat from milk could be acquired without having to kill an animal, but beef tallow or lard from pigs was only able to be obtained by slaughtering the animal.
For nomads, butter was therefore clearly the ideal fat (p. 19). Note: Fish and plant-based fats and oils (edible fats, cooking oil) came into use much later.
However, halloumi is thought to have been known in ancient Egypt and Arab countries. Halloumi (or hallumi, challúmi) is made according to an ancient Egyptian, or more specifically Arab method of cheese-making. Today, we know halloumi as a specialty in Mediterranean countries. It was originally made from mouflon’s milk, but today this semihard cheese—with its distinctive bell-shape appearance—is made from cow’s milk, goat’s milk, sheep’s milk, or a combination of these. Since halloumi has a high melting point, it retains its shape when it is grilled or fried.
You now need 21 liters of milk to make a kilogram of butter. In earlier times, two or three times that much was required given the lower fat content of the milk. Calves have been raised on milk replacers only since the twentieth century. In the Middle Ages, a cow yielded 600 liters of milk and of that about 250 liters had to be set aside for the calf (dairy farming).
At that time, however, the yield of a cow was only about 0.3 to 0.9 liters and very rarely up to 2 liters a day. The lactation period was 100 to 240 days. Even today, a cow can only give milk for a certain period of time after the birth of her calf. Today, however, the lactation period is usually 305 days (dairy cattle).
Wikipedia (German edition) on the lactation period: Since 1937, cows have been injected with BST from cattle carcasses in order to achieve an increase in milk yield. Even higher yields have been achieved in the United States, where since 1994 cows have been injected with genetically recombined, artificial bovine somatropin (rBST), called Posilac, from Monsanto.
"Monsanto sold Posilac and all rights to Elanco Animal Health, a subsidiary of Eli Lilly in August 2008. Posilac has not been approved in Canada or Europe."
"Inflammation of the cow’s udder can occur as a side effect, creating a pus which is excreted into the milk. As a countermeasure, an increased use of antibiotics is recommended. As a result, hormone ingredients and antibiotics are also present in the cow's milk."
For a discussion on milk and our lack of full adaptation to it, it is important to know that humans have only had domesticated animals, such as goats and sheep, for the last 12'000 years. And it was only 8'000 years ago that people in the Middle East domesticated cattle. Even more to the point, drinking milk, instead of processing almost all of it into butter or cheese, is a development which only began during the Industrial Revolution.
The cow did not descend from the aurochs, which went extinct in 1626, as is commonly believed. Through comparisons of mitochondrial gene sequences, Prof. Dr. Norbert Benecke found that our current cattle have practically no genes from the aurochs, but that cattle descended directly from the urus.
Please also see his book "Der Mensch und seine Haustiere" (Humans and their pets) and an article from 2006 in the NZZ (New Journal for Zurich), which mentions Dr. Ruth Bollongino. For about a thousand years, the wild aurochs lived alongside the domesticated taurine cattle in Europe.
In particular, cows, who are female and more docile, were used as draft animals. They pulled the plow and sometimes still do so today. In addition, all of the animals mentioned above were also suppliers of meat (animal slaughter).
Ms. Rollinger also includes dogs here (p. 29). About a thousand years before cattle, we had cats as pets. But even earlier than that, more than 30,000 years ago, we domesticated and/or bred dogs. The domestic pig came about 9,000 years ago. We call the above animals and other farm animals livestock. Humans domesticated the horse (equus = genus) at least 7,000 years ago and the donkey at least 6,000 years ago. Camels and dromedaries have been used by people for about 5,000 years. Camels were milk suppliers before the cow.
By the way, lactose is milk sugar and lactase is the enzyme that breaks down lactose.
Using data from the different time periods, the author informs us that we have been consuming “white milk” products in abundance only since the end of World War II. We have been drawing the wrong conclusions from the biblical vision of
milk and honey.
As we shall see, a life that includes the daily consumption of dairy products such as milk, butter, cheese, quark, yogurt, and milk chocolate is neither an established custom nor traditional and is most likely unhealthy as milk was used well into the nineteenth century almost exclusively for butter and cheese production.
With the rarely used terms alactasia and alactasiast, the author refers to the medical conditions of lactose intolerance, hypolactasia, milk sugar intolerance, lactase deficiency, and lactose malabsorption syndrome and also uses them to illustrate important ethnological factors. Lactase deficiency (lack of lactase enzyme) is the normal case worldwide for all mammals following infancy, thus also for humans.
Only once you trace the origins of Homo sapiens (humans), will you be able to understand just how new the modern habit of drinking milk is, explains Maria Rollinger. She further states that researchers have established that we have the typical characteristics of herbivores.
Carnivores (meat eaters), however, have short straight digestive tubes so that damaging decayed protein, the animal protein, can be eliminated as quickly as possible (p. 23).
Our typical long small intestine with intestinal villi is also a clear indication. In humans, the small intestine is longer and the colon (large intestine) is shorter than in other primates. Note: In addition, our intestines have folds and microvilli, which increase the surface area enormously.
Evolutionary developmental biology, called evo-devo, or more recently also including the study of the environment called eco-evo-devo, gives us an understanding of the very long periods of time it takes, for example, to adapt a digestive tract to a different type of diet.
Since the 1980s, evo-devo has also included the processes in epigenetics. The term was coined by British researcher Conrad Hal Waddington in 1942 and is discussed in the book "The Epigenetics of Birds" (1952). This concept was previously not accepted because of the Weismann-Barrier Theory. Only since the 1990s, have we begun to realize its importance and impact.
As can be seen in other primates, we lived on a diet
based primarily on plants with the occasional addition of animal products. The basis of our diet was mainly tubers, roots, and greens, (leafy vegetables and plants) such as rushes (juncus) and sedges (Cyperaceae), seeds, nuts, fruits, and berries. Our oldest diet probably also included beetles, snails, insects, bivalves, and eggs from a wide variety of bird species, and occasionally fish and the meat of small animals.
We have limited ability to detoxify ammonia (urea cycle) and in the long run can tolerate a maximum amount of 30 percent protein in our diet.
Animal food from larger animals was only consumed starting in the Upper Paleolithic period, parallel to the global development of the hunter-gatherer cultures.
However, even then the proportion of plant foods was always about 70 percent, says the author.
The Upper Paleolithic period began about 40,000 years ago and lasted until about 9700 BCE. At the same time, the migration of Homo sapiens to Europe began. The Neanderthals, who immigrated 130 thousand years ago, predominated at first. Both came from the Homo (2.5 to 1.5 million years ago). See also Homo rudolfensis, whose existence was ascertained only in 2012 (several discoveries) and who were, according to Wikipedia,
There were special developments at various times and places, for example, a diet consisting mainly of large hunted animals in the last part of the Paleolithic period. This brought
whole societies to the brink of ruin (p. 24).
About 12,000 years ago, animal husbandry and cultivation of land (agriculture) began during the time of the Neolithic revolution as people began to settle (sedentism), and unbalanced diets became common as a result of excess production and specialization. Archaeological research indicates this undesirable development. Note: This change occurred over thousands of years in different areas, and not all at the same time.
All types of grain and dairy products must be regarded as relatively new foods in the human diet as they were introduced during the Neolithic Revolution. Today, these have become our staple foods (p. 26).
Grains with gluten, a mixture of proteins, can cause gluten sensitivity or even celiac disease (coeliac disease). Gluten intolerance is also called gluten sensitive, gluten-induced enteropathy, intestinal infantilism, and nontropical sprue or Heubner-Herter disease. It is a chronic disease of the small intestine due to a hypersensitivity to components of gluten, which are found in some grains.
Milk is still the most recent food item and adaptation to it is least advanced. In most people, no adaptation has occurred at all, since they do not consume dairy products.
The author describes the early history of milk and the later use of dairy milk. This type of usage began with goats and sheep. Evidence of milk processing can be found in the Sahara Desert, Egypt, and Mesopotamia 6,000 years ago and in India, 4,000 years ago. Cow and bull gods (kujata, vala, vedic, and hathor) have existed since 3500 BCE. Maria Rollinger provides information about the various cults, such as the cult of Hathor and the Egyptian and Northern European Ice Age myths.
Butter was a luxury item, especially as a fat for cosmetic ointments and treatments for skin diseases.
The Greeks and Romans were the first to recognize diseases caused by milk. Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BCE), who is considered to be the founder of medical science, described intolerance reactions to milk and cheese. Among the Greeks, butter was even considered unhealthy (p. 35).
After the classical Roman period, there were no further mentions of milk, butter, or cheese.
The more recent history of milk, since the late antiquity, is virtually unexplored. The author assumes that the occurrences during this period of time could not be reconciled with today's well preserved belief or creed of
traditional milk consumption and the concept of
Galen of Pergamon (Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, Galen, approx. 129–199), the most important physician of antiquity, also found milk and cheese to be the cause of many diseases, as he practiced prophylactic medicine. He considered only whey to be beneficial for internal cleansing (p. 37).
Later physicians also linked cheese with severe digestion problems, headaches, and epilepsy. The cheese lover Pantaleone de Confienza (approx. 1417–1497) published the first book on milk and its products in a positive sense with his book Summa Lacticiniorum (1477).
But because of his observations, he also advised moderation.
Cheese is healthy when served by a stingy hand. On his many journeys, he saw that some people became sick from consuming cheese, but that others showed better tolerance. He commented that the elderly in particular suffered more from asthma. He correctly described that milk curdles in the stomach and clumps and is therefore difficult to digest. He also pointed out that milk and dairy products are fattening.
Donkey’s milk does not curdle and is therefore the healthiest, wrote Galen. Like human breast milk, donkey’s milk contains little casein.
Ms. Rollinger further informs us that the Swiss physician and naturalist Conrad Gesner (1516–1565) came to the same findings as Galen in his book called "Büchlein von der Milch und den Milchprodukten" (About milk and dairy products), published in 1541. It describes 13 key findings in detail and summarizes the diseases observed to be caused by milk and cheese consumption.
Obstruction and diseases of the liver, kidney stones, bladder stones, catarrh (asthma), flatulence below the diaphragm (leading to pressure on the heart and heart problems), bloating in the abdomen, swollen abdomen, damage to teeth and gums, severe rashes (exanthem), spleen disease, suffocation (asphyxia), changes in vision, headaches, nervous disorders, dizziness, and epilepsy (p. 42).
Residual milk from butter processing was waste and used for pig feed. Until the nineteenth century, the yield of a cow was measured in pounds of butter, not in milk production.
The farmer’s wife was responsible for the processing of milk, and the total profits from the milk processing consisted of 77 percent butter, 13 percent cheese, and 10 percent to feed to the pigs that were to be sold.
In Roman times, southern Europeans raised goats, but in northern Europe sheep were raised, primarily for their wool and less for sheep's cheese (p. 44). Between the sixth and twelfth centuries AD, northern Europeans started raising goats as well to use the hair, fur, meat, and milk. The milk was processed mostly to goat's cheese because goat’s milk is unsuitable for butter.
Greek goat breeds gave 100 kg of milk per year. Today, the yield can be 300 or more kg a year. In the year 1800 in Germany, the yield per goat was about 150 kg of milk, today an annual production of about 1,000 kg can be achieved.
The author describes under subsistence (traditional economy), how much Germany’s population grew since its unification which established the German Reich (empire) in 1871 until 1914. In this time, the development of cities, the milk trade, and the practice of drinking milk arose.
Farmers first founded milk depots from which milkmaids brought milk to households. Some milkmaids opened their own milk depots. Hence the expression “Milchmädchenrechnung" (literally “milkmaid's bill,” which in German is an expression meaning “naive assumption”).
At that time, the transport of milk was limited to the local vicinity because of its short shelf life.
With a horse-drawn vehicle, for example, milk could only be transported within a radius of about five km and by rail approximately 30 km without spoiling (p. 50).
© Public Domain, Grandville, Wikipedia
The origin of the expression “Milchmädchenrechnung” (English: milkmaid's bill) given in Wikipedia is not as clear as in the book. The author’s explanation is more plausible, even if the term “Milchmädchenrechnung” is used today in a disparaging manner.
Maria Rollinger includes a table from 1882 to show an example of a weekly lunch program for the poor. Sausage broth or buttermilk was served on only one day of the week. A menu for four people included half a pound of barley in soup and six pounds of potatoes. The potatoes were considered the main component; 700 g per person was the average.
The locally restricted milk trade existed until the introduction of machinery, with butter still being the main product. Dairies were started with the introduction of milk centrifuges. The yield of butter was much higher, but a centrifuge was expensive. At this point, men organized the creameries, and a division of labor between dairies and creameries and sales cooperatives slowly set in.
Paraphrased from the book: On behalf of king Napoleon III, Meges-Mouriés developed a method to produce margarine from beef tallow and skim milk in 1860. The margarine could be used as a butter substitute for the army. As of 1902, fat hardening (trans fats) was possible using techniques from Wilhelm Normann so that the margarine (for the poor) could also contain vegetable oils.
The first newspapers and publications about milk emerged in the 1870s. The propaganda was aimed at getting the poorer sections of society used to milk and dairy products (p. 57).
The first laws came into being because of milk adulteration (mixing milk with water, see also milk quality testing). Thanks to Louis Pasteur, heat treatment of milk began initially at 90 degrees Celsius (194°F). And thanks to Robert Koch, testing for tuberculosis (TB) and inflammation of the udder (mastitis) was conducted. Research institutions and funding organizations for the dairy industry were created later.
The heyday of the production of artificial food (see BBC) began at the same time. This included margarine, which was also sold as butter, artificial wines (allowed in the EU again since 2006), artificial honey, artificial ice cream, sweeteners, and meat extracts. In addition, glutamate (glutamic acid) was used as a flavor enhancer, preservatives (food preservation), instant soups, and baby foods were produced, and experiments with food preservatives were conducted. See also food coloring.
The author describes how in 1880 only 0.3 percent of the pigs delivered to the Berlin slaughterhouse showed evidence of TB. By 1905, it was 47.5 percent. This was the case even though the milk used for animal feed was heated to 90 degrees Celsius (194°F) starting in the 1890s. Ms. Rabinowitsch-Kempner showed that bovine TB pathogen could also infect humans (M. tuberculosis).
It's hard to imagine the living conditions (civilization, quality of life, and standard of living) in the cities at that time. The hygiene conditions were very poor, there was a high rate of infant mortality, many epidemics, long working hours, and no insurance, and the medicine was not comparable with the medicine of today. The infant mortality rate was 21.5 percent in the 1880s.
Babies were given porridge, mixed with dairy milk if possible.
Hygienists and doctors claimed that the lack of milk supply for the townspeople was partly responsible for the high rate of infant mortality ... The great cholera epidemic took place in 1892 (p. 61).
A difference not to be underestimated: at that time, the children were given milk that came from one single cow.
In the past, it was the poor quality of the drinking water that caused the human immune system to be overworked.
In 1879, a food law was passed that mandated certain controls and labeling requirements. In 1930, a Dairy Act (later called Milk and Fat Act) was adopted.
Whole milk had to contain a minimum of 2.8 to 3 percent fat (butter fat). Today, fat content of 4 to 6 percent can be achieved.
The author explains many reasons why pasteurization was not made mandatory in Germany until the Milk Act of 1930. Since the animal diseases appeared to be defeated, the EU abolished compulsory pasteurization in 2006.
We also learn how the negative image of milk slowly but surely transformed into a positive one. Milk came to be considered “hygienic.” In 1928, the proceeds from milk comprised one-third of the total farm revenue.
The Nazis then introduced
comprehensive state control of production, processing, trade, sales, and prices for all agricultural sectors. This was accomplished with the Milk Act of 1930, which included government authorization to forcibly merge producers (farmers) and processors of milk. The German Reich Food Industry Administration Law with market regulations (German Reich Food Industry Administration) was also created. This has been continued with EU market regulations.
The actual dairy industry arose only after World War II (Association of the German Dairy Industry). The Milk and Fat Act (Milch- und Fettgesetz) of 1951, enacted in 1952, already aimed at cheap mass production for mass consumption (consumer society, consumerism, followed by the throw-away society) and international trade (p. 67).
Complete control of the agricultural sector by the state was easy for the Third Reich to maintain after the initial introduction phase, and the politicians at the time considered it necessary in order to achieve their goals.
On two pages, the author describes how companies who felt ideologically committed to free competition introduced comprehensive economic policies. She also provides a comparison with the collective and state farms of the former Soviet Union and gets to the crux of the matter with this sentence:
Every industry produces according to the rules of assembly line logic and not according to the rules of nature.
In this way, power was passed from the producers of milk to the processing plants, industry, and trade. The result: cruelty to animals and abuse on a large scale.
Meat and bone meal for herbivores and ruminants, hormones and antibiotics for slaughter animals so that they reach their slaughter weight faster and don’t die of epidemic diseases beforehand, waste products fed not only to animals but also to humans (whey, waste hormones in glucose syrup, etc.), bacterially converted feces as a meat substitute, and finally genetically modified animals to increase yield.
Waste oil made into feed for chickens, nicotine in eggs, and the sale of rotten meat are no longer unusual.
Note on the above quotation: The case of nicotine in eggs was described in an article published by Die Welt (The world, a German newspaper) on April 4, 2006. The Lower Saxony Ministry of Agriculture temporarily suspended market leader, Deutsche Frühstücksei GmbH (Germany company that sells eggs). However, the company was able to lay the blame on the subcontractors. It affected no less than 128 Lower Saxony farms. Daily production of these farms was three million eggs ...
This development resulted in a huge accumulation of power held by just a few people. We learn more how the producers joined forces over time so that their operations became larger and larger. And how the industry also merged to form a limited number of giant enterprises and throw smaller companies out of the market. This had political support.
Before World War II, more than 30 percent of farms used cows as field work animals. In 1958, it was only 20 percent. They did not have to give milk continuously and never that much.
The normal age of cows was about 25 (20) years. Today, they are exhausted after four to six calving cycles and get slaughtered after six to eight years (p. 72).
A cow that does not achieve 7'000 kg during her first lactation period is brought to the slaughterhouse immediately (p. 96).
Farmers in the US have achieved a milk yield of 18'000 to 20'000 kg within two lactation periods with turbo high-performance cows and the artificial growth hormone (recombinant bovine somatropin, rBST) from Monsanto. The cows are sent to the slaughterhouse after four to five years (p. 97).
Today, however, the trend is toward just one lactation period, which by using hormones can be extended to 18 months or more, and the cow gets slaughtered at the age of three-and-a-half after having produced 18 tons of milk. The meat is usable for nothing more than ground beef (hamburger) and sausage processing (p. 98)
Until certain laws were passed in 1970, milk was a regional issue. Milk sours in one to one and a half days and previously turned into soured milk, but today it rots (putrefaction, decomposition). Using the technical facilities developed in the 60s for cooling, processing, and filling, lactic acid coagulation (lactic acid fermentation) can now be delayed by several days.
Since there were still too many reservations about pasteurization, sales of certified raw milk were still at 60 percent in 1960. The answer was to offer packaged milk, which in Europe surely began with the Tetra Pack. In this way, retail stores and supermarkets were able to supersede the milk dealers and milk shops.
Although homogenization had been a known quantity for decades, it only emerged in Germany in the 1960s. The freshness of the milk was no longer an issue. Because of the great reduction in the size of the fat globules, separation of the cream was significantly delayed and the milk was
Homogenization is responsible for certain adverse health effects such as allergies and intestinal damage, but this fact is still denied or ignored by the prevailing opinion in nutritional science (p. 75).
With UHT milk (ultrahigh temperature processing), the milk industry achieved a longer shelf life as of 1963. This is up to three months, and the industry soon was able to reduce its price below the price of fresh packaged milk. As a result, UHT milk had a market share of 40 percent in 1977.
Extensive processing greatly decreases the nutritional value, and this has been compensated for in recent years with the use of artificial additives.
Between 1960 and 1974, the sales of fresh cheese and quark increased by 124 percent, sales of fermented dairy products by about 1020 percent, and cheese by about 60 percent (p. 76)
Cream was processed by the industry into butter and skim milk into skim milk powder (milk powder). The political work (lobbying, public affairs, government relations, by special interest groups, legislators, and the like) has paid off for the parties concerned because before the State had to take on both of these products at a predetermined price.
In 1983, West Germany alone produced 26.1 million tons of milk. A milk quota system wasn't put into place until 1984; it still exists today in the form of a milk guarantee regulation. This brought production down to 22 million tons.
The EU lifted the milk quota on March 31, 2015 and also started six promotion programs for the dairy industry. See here for additional information. These come in addition to 14 ongoing measures, which are targeted primarily at exports—with subsidies that total 82 million euros. That is not a lot per EU inhabitant, but, in part, a catastrophe for other countries. Then there is also the meat industry that receives similar subsidies (CAP).
As a critical citizen, it is worthwhile to take the time to read the above link on the milk guarantee scheme. The organization is called the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF). For me, the EAGF seems to be the highest type of economic trust, especially when viewed internationally—and is therefore the opposite of what is known as Rhine Capitalism. An important point here is the “refunds on exports to nonmember countries.” The subsidies and the economy of abundance are part of the reason why many Africans are fleeing to Europe. The subsidized exports ruin the farmers there, and some of them react by turning to extremism, while others have to flee. Viewed in the long term, we are digging our own grave.
The author details the changes for the farms and the new feed the cows were given, which included many unsuitable ingredients such as silage and concentrated feed from various products such as canola, maize, wheat, barley, and (until 2001) animal proteins.
The cheapest options available were chosen, which included waste products from the food industry such as soybean meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, soybean curd residue, peanut shells, coconut shells, residues from fruit processing, and fat from fat rendering (p. 81).
As part of the EU's common agricultural policy in the 1990s, the suckler cow premium, a new subsidy, was introduced for meat cows, that is cows (meat breeds) with a small udder that were allowed to graze on pastures. People from the city would see these beautiful cows in the pastures, some with their heifers (calves), and believe them to be dairy cows (p. 84).
The introduction of milking machines in the postwar years brought with it the problem of mastitis in cows.
Today, forty percent of all cows in Europe are affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis. This is also partly because of the inappropriate care and feeding that are used to achieve a higher milk yield. Mastitis is extremely painful, and the use of antibiotics is necessary. In women, the disease is also called mastitis.
This milk has an altered bacterial flora and a lack of lactic acid bacteria. Instead, it contains somatic cells, i.e., body pus cells (pus). EHEC bacteria (enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli bacteria) are sometimes involved in mastitis and can cause serious intestinal diseases in humans.
In the US, the bacterium staphylococcus aureus causes 30 percent of severe mastitis cases. At the same time that it was detected in cows, infections with MRSA, or methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus increased substantially in hospitals, also in Germany (p. 85).
There is a law stating that milk should not be sold for human consumption during the time when a cow is receiving antibiotics. There are also specified limits. But given the large amount of milk produced at farms and the even larger amounts when the milk from several farms is combined, proving violations is all but impossible. Dairy farmers are well aware of this fact, including those who are not so honest.
Antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly important topic. This resistance is explained well here. We would like to expect miracles from teixobactin, but we will have to wait and see. First, we need to start with livestock farming and what we eat. The development of resistance and viruses in hospitals tend to interest us only if they concern ourselves or our friends and family. Hospital-acquired infections are called nosocomial infections.
Maria Rollinger describes the changes to milk since World War II. These have to do with its bacterial flora, and fat and protein content.
First of all, natural milk contains lactic acid bacteria (lactobacillales, LAB). This causes the milk to acidify and after a day or two become soured milk with an acidic pH, which prevents putrefactive bacteria over a longer period of time. This is a natural form of protection against putrefaction (spoiling).
Despite the best hygiene in the modern milking systems, today's milk shows a ratio in favor of putrefactive bacteria, in particular because lactic acid bacteria develops well in warm temperatures.
However, through cooling the milk we suppress the lactic acid fermentation process. This helps the putrefactive bacteria “gain the upper hand” as they love the cold.
Even if we kill almost all of the bacteria with pasteurization and ultrahigh temperatures, the previously formed enzymes remain. This is why even unopened UHT milk eventually spoils. Milk can only have low values of good lactic acid bacteria and putrefactive bacteria—but only because of the long shelf life required by the dairy industry.
The law indirectly confirms this. According to it, raw buffalo’s, sheep’s, and goat’s milk may only contain one and a half million microbes per milliliter, while raw cow's milk may only contain 100,000 per milliliter.
The buffalo’s, sheep’s, and goat’s milk is hand-milked (milking) or goes directly to processing.
Since the industry removes the greater fat content for butter production, it shouldn’t really matter to us. However, these fats today are made up of more of the harmful saturated fats (lipids). Instead of grass, cows are fed high protein concentrate feed and silage that are low in fiber.
These make cheese processing more efficient and improve the yield. Cheese producers want more and more designer milk from kappa-casein cows. No one seems to consider what effect these caseins may have on us.
Such milk also contains harmful substances: heavy metals and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), disinfectants (usually chloroform), pesticides, herbicides, and residues of veterinary drugs such as antibiotics and hormones (see list). For quite some time now, the feed has been purchased directly on the world market and we have to expect substances that are prohibited in our own countries.
Even if the use of artificial growth hormones is prohibited in Europe, violations occur, which we only hear about when there are food scandals (list of food safety scandals).
Starting on page 91, Maria Rollinger writes about the suffering of animals. In this section, she quotes a translation of five key findings made in chapter three of the Report on Animal Welfare Aspects of the Use of Bovine Somatotrophin. Then she discusses
the mistreatment of animals.
Administering of hormones is a major factor here. Various measures are taken to extend the lactation period of five to six months to about twice that.
The cows are kept almost continuously pregnant and therefore have to simultaneously be nourishing a new calf and providing a high milk yield. It is estimated that about 50 percent of the milk in Europe comes from pregnant cows, and in the United States about 80 percent.
This affects the hormonal balance of the animals, which is something that scientists at respected universities are now finally concerned about. They no longer rule out a connection between hormone-dependent cancers and milk consumption. In earlier times, cows were not milked when they were pregnant, no matter what country they were in. As a result, the flow of milk dried up.
The author describes the typical life of a cow until it becomes uneconomical and gets sent to slaughter. For one liter of milk, 500 liters of blood must flow through the udder. The trend is moving toward two lactation periods with a yield of 20 tons of milk; in the US, it’s moving toward a single prolonged lactation period with a yield of 18 tons of milk after which the cow is slaughtered.
Butchers at the slaughterhouse see cows' bones that are often porous enough to break. And now clone cows are being discussed, but so far there are only a few thousand of them.
In the last thousand years, humans have lived on
primarily various grains, meat, fish, legumes of all kinds, nuts, seeds, vegetables, oil, and small amounts of fruit, eggs, butter, and cheese. The amount of fresh dairy products has been minimal. At times, meat consumption has predominated (Late Middle Ages and the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries), and at other times, grains and legumes have been the major staple (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries).
Cream emerged only in 1960 when electric beaters replaced whipped cream made by hand. Tables are provided, some with international statistics, that explain this development.
After World War II, fat and protein production experienced exponential growth until 1990.
It is interesting to compare the amount of milk that different countries consume; the milk consumption is particularly high in countries such as Finland and Sweden. The French and Germans, on the other hand, consume significantly more cheese—with roughly the same high intake of dairy ingredients since a kilogram of cheese equals about ten kilograms of milk.
Consumption of milk or dairy products for the Chinese was reported to be 12 kg per person for the 2002/2003 season, followed by South Africa (30.4) and Japan (37.6). Top consumers are Finland (196.8), Ireland (172.3), Sweden (170.1), Denmark (163.8), Netherlands (150.7), Spain (141.7), France (131.6 ), Portugal (125.7—used to be much less), GB (125.9), Germany (123.9), Australia (112.8), New Zealand (110.8), and Switzerland (106.8—as of 1995 it was 119.3).
Based on a lack of and later on limited figures from statistics and other sources, the author concludes that the practice of drinking milk has played a negligible role. Virtually everything can be found in statistics, but nothing about milk. Since 1930, this has changed, at least in Germany.
The scientific mainstream still refuses to recognize links between specific environmental factors and diseases, unless they concern substances that have been identified as toxic.
With the section “Disease and environment—scientific dispute without end,” (Krankheit und Umwelt—wissenschaftlicher Streit ohne Ende), the author points to the sad situation regarding statistics and insights gained from them. She criticizes the fact that the scientific mainstream still refuses to recognize links between specific environmental factors and diseases, unless they concern substances that have been identified as toxic.
At the most, they admit that environmental factors such as diet play an important role. But as soon as a specific environmental factor or substance is questioned, the mainstream denies any link.
The mass media immediately reports answers such as:
A causal relationship has not been or not yet been scientifically proven” or “further research is necessary.” Only a few dare to take a definite stance because the study to prove the contrary has already been commissioned. Every scientist faces the dilemma of not being one hundred percent sure about their assertion (p. 115).
With such contradictions, the question arises as to how far research is driven by special interests, writes the author, a lawyer herself, carefully on page 129.
For such topics, scientists must develop epidemiological studies, compare statistics, make cross-country comparisons, and conduct interviews with subjects (epidemiology). In particular, long-term studies (long-term experiment), which might have staff turnover, may have to include reservations and other possible views. Usually there are other factors involved that could affect a result.
Special interests and loyalties of the parties involved dominate the game and as a result general disorientation arises. Authorities, doctors, and patients around the world usually react with uncertainty. The author recalls the example from April 2002 with the carcinogenic acrylamide contained in chips, fries, and similar carbohydrate-containing products.
The Western lifestyle diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, allergies, and asthma were as rare in Japan as dairy products. It was not until they adopted our staple foods made from milk and grains that these diseases appeared.
The answer to the question as to what is causing the high and increasing number of lifestyle diseases should be as simple as possible. The simplest and most frequent phrase is:
Stress, lack of exercise, and a low-fiber diet.
However, people in Japan and China have at least the same level of stress, or perhaps even a greater level as they have to work many more hours. Many of them also eat low-fiber foods. However, their milk and dairy product consumption is much different from our own (p. 117).
What does the expression
rich women's disease denote? This is the colloquial term for breast cancer in some areas because breast cancer occurs mainly in societies where people can buy and consume a large amount of animal protein.
According to figures from the World Health Organization (WHO), there is a clear correlation between the consumption of dairy products and the frequency of breast cancer (correlation). A comparison between West Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) shows the same. The later increase in new cases of breast cancers in the GDR also correlates with the increase in milk consumption. The increased milk consumption brought with it increased rates of breast cancer, but because of the much lower consumption of cheese the figures remained significantly behind those in the western States of Germany.
According to Jane Plant (p. 167), in China breast cancer is commonly known as the
rich women's disease. The Atlas der Krebssterblichkeitsrate in der Volksrepublik China (Atlas of cancer mortality rates in the Peopleʼs Republic of China) and WHO statistics for China, Japan, Thailand, and western countries show the same relationship for both breast cancer and prostate cancer.
In these countries, there has been an increase of both types of cancer in cities that are oriented toward the West. A study from 2003 shows the major changes that took place in Japan after World War II. These were particularly in urban areas where people began to consume milk, ice cream, chocolate, and cheese, all products containing milk. They acquired these habits from the American victors (p. 123).
Jane Plant writes,
If breast tissue is continually bathed in fluid that has increased levels of growth factor which by nature sends signals to females in puberty that it is time to develop breasts and/or contains a hormone which is of great importance for milk production in mammals, then is it really a surprise that errors occur in cells that lead to cancer? (p. 124)
It is well established that consumption of dairy milk in infancy and early childhood significantly increases the risk of juvenile diabetes type I. Studies from Finland and Canada are definitive, but in the United States and Germany, the dairy industry still vehemently tries to deny this.
Certain whey proteins (serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin), but also certain caseins are regarded as substances that trigger immune responses and thereby increase the risk of diabetes type I. For example, the bovine serum albumin is similar to a human protein produced in the pancreas, which plays a role in insulin production.
If young children consume dairy milk, they develop antibodies against the foreign proteins. The antibodies that develop to work against the bovine serum albumin are also aimed against their own pancreatic protein, presumably because the antibodies cannot distinguish the bovine serum albumin from the human protein (p. 119).
Two new Scandinavian studies show that insulinotropic effects of milk proteins can also cause diabetes mellitus type II, the adult-onset type of diabetes. In addition, the study established that
milk, cheese, and in particular whey increase insulin secretion considerably more after consumption as compared with meat, fish, gluten, or white wheat bread.
Canadian studies from 2001 that are
so far unchallenged, show that
type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS) are immunologically very similar diseases, and the autoimmune reaction (autoimmunity) affects both the pancreas and the nerve tissue that is compromised by Ms. Maria Rollinger describes an interesting study by Ashton F. Embry on MS, which shows that the contributing dietary factors of milk, animal proteins, yeast, and legumes (fabaceae) play a role (p. 121).
Epidemiological considerations also lead to the same conclusion as the author shows with a comparison between Finland and Spain. Spain was in the group of the lowest milk consumers in the EU until the late 1990s and even in 2000 had only half the consumption rate of Finland. The rate at which diabetes increased corresponded with the milk consumption.
The author provides numerous epidemiological comparisons, including some with cardiovascular diseases, which show this link directly. She compares Finland and Greece. The result was the polymeal concept (polymeal as a natural alternative to polypill) used for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, better known as the Cretan diet or Mediterranean diet. But this is more of a marketing idea for olive oil, wine, and chocolate.
Nonetheless, the diet is dairy-free and according to the author includes fish, dark chocolate, fruits, vegetables, garlic, almonds, and moderate wine consumption.
The reality is different in these countries, and the mortality rate isn't lower. Instead, people die of other diseases. Diets are unfortunately very much a result of trends and worldviews instead of proven health benefits. It is particularly parties with a vested interest that play a major role. For example, canola oil would be healthier than olive oil, but a strong lobby for olive oil has successfully driven the market for more than two decades now.
We know that the calcium in milk and other dairy products isn't absorbed into the bones because of the pH, but that it saturates the blood which inhibits the formation of Vitamin D. However, Vitamin D is important in the differentiation of healthy prostate cells and also helps to prevent cell proliferation.
Various studies have shown a direct connection between malignant ovarian tumors (ovarian cancer) and milk consumption (lactose). Studies conducted by Harvard Medical School in the United States and the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, confirmed exactly this in 2004.
Concerning Parkinson's disease, studies at Harvard University have shown that consuming dairy products several times a day can lead to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease in men, but not in women. The results of this study were confirmed multiple times between 2002 and 2007, primarily by Chen.
In the case of autism, there is usually a functional disorder of the intestine. This leads to the release of larger protein particles (peptides) into the bloodstream before they are fully digested and has adverse effects (leaky gut syndrome).
It is well known that in most cases a diet free of dairy and/or wheat products leads to significant improvements of the symptoms. If a person goes back to their normal diet, the symptoms return (p. 125).
Studies have shown that the urine of children with autism contains unnaturally high concentrations of opioid peptides of the milk protein casein and the wheat protein gluten. These are called casomorphins and gliadorphins or gluteomorphins.
The author recommends several websites for parents that can be of great help with this topic and lists the following researchers in the field of autism: Robert Cade (US), Paul Shattock (Great Britain), and Kalle Reichelt (Norway). See also gluten-free, casein-free diet.
The author criticizes the medical system for the fact that patients with acne and eczema are treated for months or years with cortisone and the like without any great success. It is only when they take the time to research that they learn how they can easily avoid allergens. Then they usually experience long-term success or are even cured.
The main allergen is most often milk (p. 126).
At least there have been signs of a change in thinking since Harvard Universität (Adebamowo, Dermatology/Online Journal, 2006, May 30, 12(4), p. 1) established a connection between milk consumption and acne.
There was a significantly higher level of visible air pollution during the era of East Germany, but allergies were much less common than in West Germany. After reunification, the air pollution decreased and the people in the eastern part of Germany started to eat more like those on the western side; within just a few years, the number of allergies had increased dramatically.
Based on various examples from a number of countries, we see that the Hygiene Theory (Hygienetheorie) or the Hygiene and After-School Care Club Theory (Hygiene-/Horttheorie) of not knowing about the differences in living conditions in East Germany in comparison to the situation in West Germany and other countries is evidence that apart from the air
diet is the most lasting and strongest environmental influence for us.
But this fact is about the last thing that politics, academics, and business want to acknowledge publicly (p. 129).
In line with the Farm Theory (Hoftheorie), we would tend to assume that children living in the country are less susceptible to allergies than children in rural areas. However,
at the other end of the world, exactly the opposite is true. Children in New Zealand who live on farms suffer from allergies more frequently than children in cities.
In this case, a connection between hay fever and yogurt consumption was established. The same goes for atopic eczema and the consumption of raw milk. The author writes,
in light of such contradictions, you have to ask yourself to what extent research is driven by special interests.
Even with rheumatoid arthritis, histamines have been found in the inflamed areas of affected joints. People who suffer from this condition develop antibodies against certain foods, often milk proteins. This is something that has been known in traditional medicine for some time.
But since 2006, modern medicine has also known that an allergen-free diet can have a curative effect. This is the result of studies conducted by Binstadt et al., in Nature Immunology, 2006, Mar., 7(3), pp. 284–292 (PubMed) and Hvatum in: 2006, Sep., 55(9), pp. 1240–1247 (Link to ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.).
Attention deficient disorder (ADS), sometimes together with hyperactivity (ADHD) are also linked to diet. The author writes that
anyone who has ever watched a child who is playing quietly and then goes berserk half an hour after eating a chocolate bar knows what we are talking about.
She goes on to say that we shouldn't be surprised that
so many children who eat primarily pasta, pizza, bread, hot dogs, chocolate milk, candy bars, pudding, and ice cream, develop these kinds of diseases. After all, all of these foods contain gluten and milk proteins. She then recommends valuable books on the subject.
It has been shown that human beings have not yet adapted to grains and milk, which, seen historically, are new foods.
The author addresses the problem of intolerances to staple foods, which actually shouldn't exist.
The basic vegetarian diet in other parts of the world consists of gluten-free plants such as corn, potatoes, millet, yams, cassava, bananas, and rice. But since farming began, we have been eating foods that contain gluten such as emmer, a primitive form of wheat and spelt.
Yet, even for us, it has been less than 100 years ago that we replaced gluten-free foods such as millet, oats, and buckwheat, as well as all types of vegetables with foods containing gluten. Even oats are normally no longer entirely gluten-free as a result of residues from the previous processing of wheat, rye, and other forms.
And we even grow special kinds of durum wheat that contain more gluten than common wheat so that the food industry can work better. Gluten has a high water-binding capacity and is therefore added to dairy products such as yogurt, ice cream, and chocolate as well as to all types of convenience foods.
The grain varieties containing the most gluten such as wheat, rye, and barley, as well as dairy products have formed the basis of our diet only for the last several decades, but we call them our staple foods.
In the past,
slow fermentation in the rye or wheat caused the gluten to disappear, but today we grow grains that have the highest gluten content possible. And now the physiological inability or poor ability of many people to adjust to grain types containing gluten is taking effect. As a result, related illnesses are emerging. Intestinal damage in the form of celiac disease develops unnoticed over long periods of time.
It is only as a result of the great increase in milk consumption that illnesses are appearing that we didn't have or didn't have to this extent in times without any or with a lower milk consumption.
With milk, it often takes a long time for an illness to manifest, and the connections between milk proteins, lactose, and health problems are therefore not immediately obvious.
People only react quickly in cases of intolerance, at least that was the case in the past. Through intensive processing, the digestibility has been improved, and the stomach and intestines no longer react by sending warning signals.
Today, milk is similar to gluten; it has become a cause of illness that is silent and hidden in almost everything, and those affected cannot get rid of it without taking further action (p. 133).
In this chapter, the author examines the components of milk and divides milk into water, lactose (a carbohydrate), fat, proteins, minerals, and hormones. She explains how we produce the enzyme lactase (β-galactosidase) in the mucosal cells of the brush border in the small intestine (microvilli).
We can only take up energy substances into our blood after they have been broken down. As such, glucose serves as a direct energy source, whereas galactose has to first be converted to glucose in the liver.
Maria Rollinger explains the three types of lactase deficiencies: congenital lactase deficiency, secondary lactase deficiency, and primary lactase deficiency, the most frequent type. This type cannot be reversed and is based on genetic disposition.
Genetic mutations from earlier times make it possible for the majority of northern Europeans to complete this division both in infancy and in later stages of life. If this special capability is not present, as in the case of the majority of the world's population, the disaccharide lactose then travels to the large intestine, where bacteria break it down. This results in a fermentation process that includes flatulence.
Depending on the person and the amount of dairy products they consume, this may also cause queasiness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or other ailments. This process can produce butyric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, short-chain fatty acids (halitosis), ammonia, and metabolic toxins.
Over the years and decades, this can result in
serious health problems or a chronic calcium deficiency. In this context, the author lists damage to the intestinal mucosa, kidney stones, and cardiovascular disease. The relevant sources are provided.
This genetic mutation, which probably occurred in the peoples between the Ural mountains and the Volga river between 4600 and 2800 BCE, pertains primarily to northern Europeans and, naturally, also those who emigrated. This mutation is passed on as a dominant gene, whereas the deficiency in lactase is recessive.
The most recent paleogenetic study that included skeleton investigations of northern and central Europeans who lived before 5500 BCE show that they were not yet mutants. The publication from March 6, 2007, astonished even those in the scientific world (p. 137).
Three mutations are also known for eastern Africa. They developed independently between 4800 and 700 BCE in various gene segments (gene) and differently from the mutation in northeastern Europe. The three ethnic groups that can produce lactase are the Tutsi in Rwanda and peoples in the Nigerian delta, such as the Fula people (Fulani, Fulɓe) and the Hema people.
Also in India, in the state of Punjab, it is estimated that only 30% of the people are lactose intolerant. And only about 10% of the Hamites in Arabic regions are lactose intolerant (see also Hamitic Theory). For Germany, the author calculates that more than 12 million people are lactose intolerant, with certainly a quarter of these originally coming from other countries.
Only few "Westerners" seem to know that about 80% of the world's population are lactose intolerant as adults.
Illnesses such as infectious diarrhea (gastroenteritis), colitis, Crohn's disease, and celiac disease/celiac sprue, serious undernourishment, or a bacterial overgrowth syndrome (e.g., small intestinal bacterial overgrowth) can cause secondary lactase deficiency.
However, congenital lactase deficiency is the congenital inability to produce lactase and is very rare. It is fatal if left untreated.
But people who can produce lactase do have varying abilities to digest casein. In Europe, there is a North-West and a West-East divide.
The author compares Asians, Africans, and indigenous peoples. For example, the Indian people primarily drink buffalo milk (from water buffalo), and this is only as a supplement to their diet and is not drunk regularly. The author points to the following:
When yogurt and butter are made in the traditional way, they don't contain any or contain only very small amounts of lactose so that they can be consumed by primarily lactose-intolerant people (p. 140).
It is primarily indigenous people who are adopting Western customs and habits. And they are doing this without knowing that they are lactose intolerant. This causes so much damage to their bodies that their performance sinks to a minimum and unemployment becomes rampant. They then often suffer from diabetes and obesity, whereas they used to be slim and particularly productive.
Now, instead of researching lactose intolerance, scientists are searching for specific genes that may have caused this. To give an example of this phenomenon, the author cites the Prima People from Arizona who adopted our diet between 1970 and 1980.
Maria Rollinger refers to the book Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture, in which Marvin Harris shows on page 138 that there have been cases of diplomatic tension as a result of milk powder deliveries to countries with primarily lactose-intolerant people.
In connection with CARE Packages delivered to Afghanistan on October 7, 2001, the wise decision was made not to send any milk powder or dairy products (FAZ Oct. 9 and 11, 2001). Responsible leaders in African countries also understand the problem of intolerance and when aid shipments arrive, they exchange milk chocolate for other things, even if critics think that this is corruption.
The author shows the problem of poor people in the Unites States who are Hispanic or African American.
It is school children who particularly suffer—also because of the lactose that is found in many convenience foods. The industry is pushing for the globalization of milk consumption and simply doesn't talk about the health problems involved.
In China, milk consumption was practically nonexistent in 1970. In 1980, it was about 1 kilogram per person for the year. In 1990, 3 kilograms; 1995, 5 kilograms; 2000, 6 kilograms. And in 2005, a total of 18 kilograms per person. And that is still quite a small amount in comparison to Germany, but the Chinese population is almost entirely lactose intolerant.
The statements made by associations, dairy product manufacturers, and machine and system manufacturers give the impression that the new El Dorado has been discovered (p. 146). But they are not the ones who have to deal with the suffering and health-care costs.
The author explains that those responsible for the health system speak with powerful eloquence of the 71 billion euros that diet-related illnesses cost, but
given the lack of understanding of the problem and/or the ideological position, research on the causes of illnesses related to the environment and diet” is not tackled. That would be
uncomfortable and unpopular (p. 153).
It is precisely because this concerns so many people that the dairy industry is lobbying so offensively for milk via the Dairy Marketing Board (DMB).
It is financed, similarly to the Centrale Marketing-Gesellschaft der Deutschen Agrarwirtschaft (Central marketing association for German agriculture), with money from a fund regulated by public law. The DMB has excellent financial resources and can finance huge advertising campaigns for dairy products” (p. 149).
In addition, the industry also conducts short-term studies which show lactose-intolerant people to have a certain level of tolerance. However, the studies don't mention the fact that long-term studies have proven exactly the opposite. The author finds it disturbing that disinformation is also widespread in Germany—and that it is financed with public money. And above all, consumers often know too little or nothing at all regarding which products have milk powder added to them.
The medical literature from the last thirty years is full of evidence that a large number of the symptoms related to irritable bowel syndrome, enteritis, allergies, asthma, and obesity, for young children also frequent ear infections, in addition to the diseases arteriosclerosis, diabetes, MS, and Crohn's disease, as well as various types of tumors are connected to the exorbitant amounts of milk and dairy products we consume (p. 152).
A bit cynical, she continues as follows:
The people affected are usually on an odyssey through doctor's offices and clinics for many years as a result of their allergy symptoms, asthma problems, kidney stones, and illnesses related to the intestines, skin, heart, circulation, and rheumatism. Only rarely do they truly find help. If they are lucky, a doctor or naturopath will tell them something about abstaining from milk. If improvement is immediate, then the medical and pharmaceutical fields have lost one of their permanent patients.
The author expresses strong approval of the fact that even physicians don't warn lactose-intolerant people about consuming milk.
A study in the Netherlands that lasted 11 years (European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2001, Aug., 13(8), pp. 941–944) showed that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who were lactose intolerant decreased their doctor's visits by 25 percent when they maintained a lactose-free diet.
Instead, people try to find entirely different causes for the North-South divide of lactose-intolerant adults, for example, a lack of Vitamin D production because of too little sun.
Ms. Rollinger explains how vitamin D, actually a hormone, is formed and how it functions as a calcium transporter in humans.
Too much vitamin D can be fatal, but in small amounts it is essential. The author speaks about the control mechanism for skin pigmentation (melanocytes) and the second way, the lactase-lactose complex. There are studies that show that the calcium supply decreases as a result of milk consumption, but the author comments,
it doesn't seem that research into the causes of calcium absorption is wanted—it's a sensitive issue (see also Taboo food and drink).
Calcium has several important physiological functions. Up to 99% of the calcium in the body can be found in the bones and teeth, but it also plays a role in many other places. Our body needs to maintain a certain pH value in the blood and does this by regulating the calcium levels very closely. In this context, the author lists the important role that calcium plays along with magnesium in the functioning of our heart, the regulation of saltatory conduction between the nerve cells, and the significance of calcium for blood coagulation (hemostasis).
The author explains how government agencies and health officials repeat the formula “Drinking a lot of milk = a lot of calcium for the body.” This happens despite the fact that we have global statistics at our disposal that show the opposite. It is true that milk contains a lot of calcium with 120 (to 160) mg/dL, but this is similar to a number of vegetables, for example, chives with 130 mg/100 g, kale, white beans, fennel, and spinach. However, you will find a much higher amount of calcium in sesame seeds with 780 mg/100 g, amaranth with 490 mg/100 g, flaxseeds with 260 mg/100 g, and almonds with 250 mg/100 g.
Our body uses about 30 to 40 percent of the calcium we consume. Depending on our food intake, a large amount of calcium can be lost through our urine. Consuming too much protein is the major cause of calcium loss. Dairy products, meat, and eggs, in particular, contain high levels of sulfur-containing amino acids (amino acid metabolism—see protein metabolism) and sodium, which are responsible for the high level of calcium loss.
In addition, the methionine found in cheese, quark, yogurt, and other fermented dairy products is responsible for a large amount of calcium loss. The author uses a diagram to show how excess protein causes a loss of calcium (box on p. 160). The calcium serves as an acid neutralizer. If there is not enough calcium available, our bones end up serving as the donor.
Almost none of the soft, hard, or sliced cheese today contains free calcium. Instead, the calcium is attached to proteins. This is why the dairy industry uses homogenization to try to obtain improved digestibility.
Milk is low in magnesium, but magnesium is necessary for calcium transport and absorption. In addition, the proper balance is important for the functioning of the muscles, heart, and nervous tissue. Vegetables are one of the best sources of magnesium—and in vegetables, it is found in the calcium-magnesium ratio we need.
We also read that
phosphates, oxalates, phytin, fiber, alcohol, and coffee act as calcium antagonists and calcium killers. In addition, the phosphates in other animal products and also in grains lead to a less than optimum calcium-phosphate balance, which causes additional calcium to be excreted in the urine.
The author finds the text titled “Was Sie über Osteoporose wissen sollten!” (What you should know about osteoporosis!) published by Orion Pharma GmbH to be particularly distasteful.
It is disturbing to see publications in the medical and pharmaceutical fields which, for example, list spreadable cheeses as a source of calcium, although it is one of the foods with the highest levels of phosphates (p. 162).
Oxalic acid is found in spinach, Swiss chard, rhubarb, red beets, and green and black tea. Phytic acid is found in the bran of almost all grains and binds to the calcium present to form an insoluble complex. This is why a “whole grain diet” isn't healthy when it isn't balanced.
When lactose-intolerant individuals consume dairy products, the lack of lactase reduces the absorption of calcium; this is why people who are lactose intolerant have higher rates of osteoporosis.
A recent study conducted by Harvard Medical School established that
neither milk nor a high consumption of calcium reduce the risk of fractures for postmenopausal women. A reduction was seen only as a result of vitamin D intake (p. 164).
Finally, Maria Rollinger explains why calcium is not ideal for losing weight and shows how without calcium from dairy products, health could be improved worldwide. She refers to the lawsuit that the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) has filed.
Interesting and enlightening is the fact that the WHO recommends 400–500 mg/day of calcium for those in “nonmilk countries,” but 900–1,500 mg/day for those in “milk countries.” The majority of people still live without following Western nutrition patterns, without dairy products and calcium substitution, and therefore practically without osteoporosis and with a much lower incidence of lifestyle diseases. But for how long?
Today, milk is made up of 13% dry components and 87% water. The dry components consist of 4.8% water lactose, 4% fats (lipids), 3.5% proteins, and 0.7% minerals, enzymes, hormones, foreign substances, and vitamins, which are partially dissolved in water. The effect that the enzymes and hormones have on us has not yet been sufficiently researched.
The author explains how lactose, the carbohydrate in milk, also called milk sugar, is a disaccharide. Lactose is
a highly problematic substance for those who are lactose intolerant, and dairy products contain higher amounts of lactose than they used to. Lactose is also mixed in with other products.
Milk powder and whey powder are actually waste products resulting from the processing of milk. They contain up to 70% lactose. Since it costs a lot to dispose of waste products that arise during food production, people have tried to make use of these. They can be easily hidden in quark, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream. Most importantly, lactose very effectively binds water and therefore increases the dry matter content. Unfortunately, lactose is also used to make organic dairy products thicker, the exception being hard cheese.
As lactose only sweetens substances very slightly, it is barely noticed. Lactose also serves as a base substance for pills and tablets and for bacon and in the production of sausage. Bread, rolls, and other baked goods are also affected. And you can find lactose in frozen vegetables and processed foods such as sauces, canned fish, and convenience dishes.
Lactose also binds flavors, a process that is used for spice mixes and instant coffee.
In 2006, McDonalds had to admit that their fries in the United States contained ʽnatural flavorsʼ derived from wheat and dairy products (p. 168).
Lactose is often listed as powdered milk product, whey powder, milk powder, milk protein, but in dairy products such as these, this type of labeling is redundant.
Milk contains a large amount of galactose, a monosaccharide that only lightly sweetens, and which is otherwise only found in any significant quantity in legumes. In comparison, milk, yogurt, and quark contain about 2,750 mg/100 g while other foods apart from dairy products contain at maximum far less than 10% of this amount. For example, kidney beans contain 153 mg and lentils 116 mg.
Other foods have much lower levels—for example, tomatoes are considered to be a vegetable that contains a lot of galactose at 23 mg, but they actually have less than one percent of the amount milk contains.
Galactose is important for the body, and the body therefore produces it itself and in the proper amount. This can also be seen in the fact that in our evolution we have consumed galactose in only the smallest amounts, except for during infancy.
Brain development may be a reason why the breast milk of humans contains more galactose than the breast milk of any other mammal, namely 3,700 mg/100 g.
When people who are lactose tolerant consume milk and dairy products, the enzyme lactase breaks down the lactose into the two monosaccharides glucose and galactose. Glucose serves as a direct energy source. However, the liver has to use various enzymes to convert galactose into glucose. If one of these enzymes is not available in sufficient quantities, the galactose that can't be converted circulates in the blood and acts as a toxin.
Galactose plays an important role in cell and brain metabolism, but too much of it can have a negative effect. The author cites galactose as one of the causes of cataracts and infertility. Cataracts are caused by the accumulation of galactitol (dulcitol, in the sugar alcohol of galactose) in the eye lens.
Today, newborn screening can detect the rare (1 in 40,000) genetic metabolic disorder galatosemia, which normally results in death within a very short time. The treatment consists of a lifelong diet that is lactose-free and low in galactose. Lactose-free milk still contains galactose and would therefore be damaging as the lactose has simply been broken down and is present as galactose.
Galactose attacks the ovarian germ cells. As a result, those who consume high levels of lactose have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
It seems that consuming more milk has effects on fertility for women. American and Finish researchers showed a clear connection between milk consumption and female infertility in a broad study in which they analyzed fertility data from 36 countries, the milk consumption per capita, and the occurrence of lactose intolerance in the female population (p. 172).
Other studies have shown the same.
An excess of galactose can also lead to disorders of the nervous system, problems with fine motor skills, and intellectual disability. Particularly when people are older, the function of the enzyme galactokinase is severely limited. The enzymes lactase and galactokinase were originally only physiologically necessary for infants. Maria Rollinger provides us with the comparison that we would have to eat either 82 kilograms of carrots or 36 kilograms of tomatoes in order to get the same amount of galactose that is contained in one single serving of yogurt (250 g, about 1 cup).
Galactose binds to and usually occurs as lactose, raffinose, stachyose, verbacose, and in thickening and gelling agents such as agar, locust bean gum, rubber and pectic substances, carrageenan, and edible seaweed (p. 169). Milk chocolate, ice cream, and other dairy products contain a relatively large amount of galactose. The food industry adds galactose to ice cream to improve the production process and final product (see also fructose malabsorption).
Butter contains 240 mg/100 g of cholesterol and Gouda cheese contains 115 mg/100 g. This is more than with most types of meat, which contain about 70 mg/100 g. And we know enough about cholesterol to know what that means for us.
Milk protein is made up of about 80% casein protein and 20% whey protein. Apart from protein in eggs (egg allergy), milk proteins are the most frequent causes of true food allergies, particularly in the case of young children.
The author incorporates a table showing the various milk proteins, including eight casein proteins, three whey proteins, four immunoglobulins (Ig), enzymes, and minor proteins. These minor proteins are only present in trace amounts, but they have a great effect.
She emphasizes that as1-casein is a strong milk allergen and that beta-casein proteins could indeed be responsible for diabetes. The a1-type beta casein is a major cause of type 1 diabetes. She writes that the whey protein beta-lactoglobulin found in dairy milk is not present in human milk and that it is the strongest milk allergen. It is also
a risk factor for the development of Diabetes Type 1, as is serum albumin (p. 176).
Exorphins are protein fragments that resemble opiates and have the same effect:
they make people happy and addicted, are calming, and reduce pain. The digestion process doesn't break them down into their amino acid components; instead, they enter the bloodstream as protein particles and reach the brain. These exorphins that can make you happy are found, most notably, in grains (gluten) and in milk.
The exorphins in milk form when casein proteins are digested in the intestine and they are therefore also called casomorphins and bioactive casein peptides. In mammals, they regulate our entire metabolism, our desire (see pain and pleasure), and intestinal activity (peristalsis).
Casein proteins have been connected to attention deficient disorder (ADS) in children, forms of depression in adults, and autism. Constipation may occur as the result of the calming effects that casomorphines have.
Around 1,000 years ago, Hildegard von Bingen forbid epileptics from eating goat's cheese—they didn't have dairy cheese back then. But the protein composition of goat's milk is similar to that of dairy milk.
The author explains the ongoing scientific debate about A1 and A2 milk. The A1-beta casein in milk from European, American, Australian, and New Zeeland cows can be transformed into the strongest opioid peptide beta-casomorphin-7. The A2-beta casein found in milk produced by Indian and African breeds, however, cannot be transformed.
As a result, A1 milk contains more morphine and is a greater contributor than A2 milk to lifestyle diseases such as autism, schizophrenia, type 1 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
Depending on the feed and care the animals receive, the vitamins A, B1, B2, B12, E, and K are found in milk. Vitamin D is only present in summer milk, and vitamin C only in trace amounts. Since milk is heated as part of the production process, milk actually contains very little vitamin B complex and essentially no vitamin C.
The author is mistaken when she writes the following about vitamin B12:
only those who have eaten vegan for a long time may potentially have a problem with this in the long term, and not others who are healthy. But lacto-vegetarians (vegetarianism) also have this problem in the long term as often do older people who don't get enough B12. The latter group is at risk not because they don't consume enough, but because their bodies can't metabolize enough.
The milk industry is engaging in false advertising when they claim that dairy products are a good source of vitamin B12. It contains only about 10% of the vitamin B12 that is in meat and an even smaller amount when compared to fish such as mackerel and herring. But vitamin B12 is really a topic in itself.
Milk, fruit, vegetables, and potatoes are rich in potassium. Milk contains, e.g., 1,500 mg/kg potassium as compared to 1,200 mg/kg calcium, but no one talks about potassium. However, too much potassium can cause cardia arrhythmia.
There are many reasons why milk fails in its role as a calcium supplier for the bones—in spite of the relatively high amount of calcium it contains. About two-thirds of the calcium is firmly bound within the casein micelles and is not available for the body to use. The body can only absorb a small amount of the rest because magnesium is required for the absorption process. With only 100 mg/kg, milk doesn't contain very much magnesium.
Magnesium, along with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), dissolves calcium phosphate. In contrast, phosphorus in the amount of 900 mg/kg forms an optimal calcium-phosphate balance. However, if foods are rich in phosphate such as colas, hard cheese, spreadable cheese, and “Kochkäse” (Cancoillotte), this disrupts the C-P balance considerably, and the body cannot absorb the calcium.
The advertising connected to zinc (3.6–4 mg/kg) is also misleading because you would have to drink 5 liters of milk daily in order to get as much zinc as you need. In addition, zinc and calcium work antagonistically and inhibit zinc resorption. Advertising with claims about iron are also deceiving as milk contains only very small amounts of iron.
Since animal feed has been iodized since the late 1990s—which has had serious consequences for the animals—and the food industry almost exclusively uses iodized salt, experts warn about the risks of consuming too much iodine. In 2006, the EU did reduce the maximum permissible level of iodine in compound feed for dairy cows from 10 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg.
But this limit is more than ten times the amount that the animals need, which causes permanent stress. However, since the animals are butchered at such a young age, the animal diseases don't become apparent, and in any case, the public doesn't become aware of this problem.
The fact that milk contains a very large amount of citric acid (E330) with 2,450 mg/kg is virtually unknown. This is almost twice as much as the calcium it contains. This can cause adverse food reactions in young children, which is something that scientists are still trying to figure out because young children don't yet consume any lemonade or convenience foods containing additive E330. A large amount of citric acid increases the transport of aluminum to the brain.
Benzoic acid, which can kill both bacteria and fungus, is used by the food industry as a preservative (E numbers 210 to 213). It is considered to be an allergen. Benzoic acid is not used in dog and cat food since even small amounts could be fatal for these animals. But too much benzoic acid can also be detrimental for humans. It occurs naturally in milk and in larger concentrations in fermented products, such as yogurt and quark.
If fruit containing benzoates such as blueberries, currants, cranberries, or plums—or nuts—is added, then the product can contain very high levels of benzoic acid. Two cups (500 g) of fruit yogurt can contain up to 150 mg of benzoic acid. That is six times more than the maximum amount recommended in 1970, and the milk ingredients alone almost reach this recommended value.
It is interesting to note that benzoic acid is not produced when the calves drink the milk directly from the utters. Instead, this happens only after oxidation occurs in the air; benzoic acid is produced from hippuric acid. Lactic acid bacteria are also involved in this process.
Methionine, an essential amino acid containing sulfur, is found primarily in milk and other animal products. Methionine changes the taste of milk in an unappetizing manner when milk is exposed to light (lightstruck flavor of milk). This oxidized flavor can be prevented by using packaging that doesn't let the light through. Our bodies use methionine to form homocysteine (HCY) in unphysiologically high concentrations—and this promotes arteriosclerosis.
Since the consumption of dairy products has quadrupled over the last 40 years, this is often linked to diet-related hyperhomocysteinaemia. It is known that people who have Alzheimer's disease show significantly elevated homocysteine levels. A comprehensive table shows that fruits and vegetables have by far the lowest levels of methionine. For example, if you take the same amount of fruit and Gruyère cheese, the fruit contains just 1% of the amount of methionine that the cheese contains. Next, the author compares two different types of diets.
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are found primarily in the dairy products and meat that come from ruminant animals. An anticarcinogenic effect of these was found only in animal studies with mice and rats and in cell cultures. The dairy industry immediately emphasized this as being a positive aspect of milk.
CLA is also found in high concentrations in nuts, sunflower seeds, thistles, and soybeans. In addition, it is found in lower concentrations in a variety of foods, a point which the dairy industry neglects to mention.
The milk from cows kept in stalls—the most common case—has only a third of the nutrition of the milk from cows who are pasture-raised. The effect of reduced body fat varies widely depending on the species. “No significant human studies have been conducted.” And the studies have not been verified. Pure CLA has been analyzed, but the effect that it has together with the other components of milk has not been investigated, and this could cancel out any positive effects.
Milk contains numerous hormones and elements that resemble hormones. The effects that these bioactive substances have on people have not, for the most part, been investigated (biophysics). Milk contains many growth hormones (somatropin) and also sex hormones. The sex hormones effect the hypothalamus, the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach and intestinal region, the thyroid, and the parathyroid glands.
The author also discusses the situation in the United States, where genetically engineered growth hormones are permitted (see The World According to Monsanto).
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) from Monsanto has been authorized in the United States as the product Posilac since 1994. It is interesting to note that rBST was produced exclusively in Austria until 2006 (p. 199). The entire production was exported to the United States. However, after an FDA inspection revealed quality issues in 2003, parallel production was then started in the United States in 2006 (p. 209).
We should know that BST and also rBST in milk and dairy products elevate the IGF-1 levels in the blood. The IGF-1 (insulin-like growth hormone) that is produced in the cow's body as a result of BST and rBST is identical to the IGF-1 in the human body. Other mammals almost always have different forms of IGF-1. The IGF-1 that humans consume via milk and dairy products is a key substance that promotes the growth and spread of tumors when it is circulating in the blood.
The IGF-1 in our bodies is bound in cells and can in this way carry out its designated tasks. We have small amounts of IGF-1 in our blood during our growth phase, but this decreases as we get older. When IGF-1 freely circulates in the blood, it, in particular, increases our risk of breast and prostate tumors. However, research on this subject has not been concluded.
Maria Rollinger includes a statement from the “Report on Animal Welfare Aspects of the Use of Bovine Somatotrophin” prepared by the EU in 1999 (p. 28) in her book:
Because of its anti-apoptotic effects, IGF1 could promote cell proliferation in cows to a stage of tumour neogenesis (p. 191).
Using just a little bit of logical reasoning, it must be clear what this means for us. Cows are only allowed to live a few years for many reasons, one of which is to prevent this outcome. Just compare milk consumption before World War II with that of today—and this with the statistics for breast and prostate cancer.
Milk contains more growth hormones in the United States than in the EU. This leads to a greater proportion of IGF-1 in the body. As I spoke in depth about this in the Book Review: Milk—The Deadly Poison, I will leave it at that. Please see also the Book Review: No Milk.
© CC-by 2.0, Foto Ernst Erb, Foundation Diet and Health Switzerland
Prof. Dr. med. Bodo C. Melnik writes:
Breast milk is not only nourishment. It regulates a central cellular switch: the enzyme complex mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1). Formula, in contrast, leads to excessive mTORC1 activity and therefore programs the body to be later susceptible to obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, allergies, and possibly also cancer” (Article: Signalsystem der Evolution [Evolutionʼs signal system].
Cloned animals can be bred to produce the highest yield possible. However, the research over the last 30 years has not yet achieved this efficiency. That is why there were only about 3'000 cloned cows in 2004. The number increased to about 4'000 by 2010.
Meat and milk from cloned animals are officially banned in Europe, but British regulatory agencies issued a warning about cloned meat and milk in 2010. Cloned meat and milk are legal in the United States, and according to this report by the BBC News, at least 100 cattle that were the offspring of a cloned cow in the US entered the UK food chain.
The milk produced by turbo cows, who are cloned via nuclear transfer (genetic copy), has a different composition. In particular, the level of bovine serum albumin (BSA) is 50% higher. For 20 years now, BSA has been linked to the development of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1.
The author shows how Monsanto and its licensed companies have been regularly submitting authorization requests around the globe for the genetically engineered growth hormone rBST. In 2004, the EU published regulations on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for Europe and on issues regarding hormone treatment given to animals for slaughter. Now it is up to consumers to decide whether or not they want GMOs.
The next 17 pages are spent describing Robert Cohen's futile court battle in the United States that had the aim of exposing how Monsanto lied and cheated in order to achieve the authorization of rBST. It is an amazing story and one which may have helped to prevent the introduction of GMOs in Canada and Europe so far.
There is no doubt that Monsanto also discovered the transcription error which happened accidentally, but yet Monsanto claimed that BST with its 191 amino acids was completely identical to the genetically engineered rBST.
The product Prosilac is twice as strong. Either the cows are given two injections a week to increase their daily milk output, or rBST can be used at the end of the lactation period in order to extend this up to 100 days. Normally, the turbo cows are then butchered.
The author also explains the effects that IFG-1 has on our bodies. We learn, for example, that IGF-1 controls the onset of puberty in girls and stimulates cell division in the breast tissue.
For the present, we can be sure that ICF-1 plays a decisive role in the development of breast and prostate tumors (p. 203).
A women's body only forms about half of a tablespoon of estrogen in her entire life. IFG-1 is effective at one nanogram per milliliter. Milk contains about thirty nanograms of IGF-1 per milliliter. And cheese contains IGF-1 in even more significant concentrations. But Posilac is still a multimillion dollar business.
Rollinger recommends a book by the British geochemist Jane Plant titled Your Life in Your Hands. In her book, Jane Plant describes the problem clearly and effectively, and she also describes how she defeated breast cancer by following a diet free of milk, dairy products, and red meat.
In particular, she points out that orally ingested IGF-1 reaches the receptors in the intestinal mucosa bioactively, passing through the stomach without being destroyed. The IGF-1 is then present in the plasma (blood plasma), which requires a special transport mechanism through the mucous membrane (tunica mucosa).
In addition, casein increases the bioavailability of IGF-1 considerably. This is necessary for mammals of the same kind so that the substances work as desired.
The curdling of milk protein in the stomach was commonly used in medicine in the Middle Ages, but today it is a forgotten technique. IGF-1 effects our immune system in several ways. It is only found in meat and milk and not in plant-based foods. Cooking and frying at high temperatures destroys the large majority of IGF-1. The gastrointestinal tract is also affected by IGF-1.
The Report on Public Health Aspects of the Use of Bovine Somatotrophin speaks about cell culture studies in section 126.96.36.199. These show that IGF-1 increases cell proliferation in various cell lines of carcinomas of the large intestine (colorectal cancer), helping the cancer to spread more quickly.
Today, we have identified around 60 hormones called semiochemicals in our bodies which are responsible for carrying information. One billionth of a gram can bring about significant biological effects.
Until 2006, it was required that milk sold in the EU be heat-treated (pasteurized) so that harmful bacteria would be killed. The situation is the same today because pasteurization has certain technological advantages even though several undesirable microbes remain, for example butyric acid bacteria.
The author explains how milk experts believe that,
pasteurization negatively influences the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and enzymes in milk, and that this can't be avoided.
There are indications that pasteurized milk is more likely to cause allergies than raw milk or UHT milk. This is because certain proteins react more aggressively as a result of pasteurization. At 80°C (176°F) or higher, complex casein-lactose connections are made, which due to the melanoidins that form is known as the Maillard reaction. Roasted chicken, microwave dishes, and French fries have a golden-brown color as a result of the injection of the lactose-casein substrate. The industry uses this capability to its advantage.
There are different types of pasteurization. Vat pasteurization is when the milk is heated at 62–65°C (143.6–149°F) for 30 to 32 minutes. High Temperature, Short Time (HTST) pasteurization entails heating the milk at 72–75°C (161.6–167°F) for 15 to 30 seconds. And high temperature pasteurization is performed at 85°C (185°F) for at least 4 seconds. The upper limit for temperature is 127°C (260.6°F). Untreated raw milk must meet very strict requirements.
After pasteurization, the whey proteins are present only in their denatured state. And at temperatures of 65°C (149°F) or higher, the casein micelle structure is destabilized. And at 75°C (167°F) or higher, the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine oxidize to become disulfides, which gives milk a “cooked” taste.
The author also discusses fats and enzymes, and how lipase is completely destroyed at 85°C (185°F) and partially destroyed at 74°C (165.2°F). Only in this way can homogenized milk be produced. It is required by law that cream be heated to 85°C (185°F) as this significantly improves the taste of butter. Xanthine oxidase, an enzyme in the milk fat globule membrane, is also inactivated at 85°C (185°F).
More vitamins are lost in UHT and sterilization than in pasteurization, which is why the industry adds artificial vitamins. (According to Wikipedia, UHT (ultrahigh temperature processing or ultra-heat treatment must be at a temperature of at least 135°C (275°F) for one to two seconds.)
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a heat-resistant pathogen which causes Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle. Its ideal growth temperature is 37°C (98.6°F), but the mycobacterium can withstand temperatures of up to 140°C (284°F). Since signs of this deadly disease only become evident in cattle after their second or third lactation period, the pathogen is very difficult to detect.
The author quotes a passage from an article by Paul Klee (2001) on the Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München website:
Paratuberculosis occurs in the places where people are looking for it. A lack of evidence pointing to paratuberculosis usually means that there has been a lack of relevant tests (p. 217).
The infection rate is estimated differently in every country, for example, in the Netherlands and in Denmark, it lies between 30 and 55% and in Germany between 10 and 30%. The calves usually get infected from their mothers before they are born. MAP can be found in the feces and milk of the animals—as early as in the initial stage.
Given the slow growth rate of MAP, it takes three months to cultivate and detect.
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis has been found in humans who have Crohn's disease, but not in healthy control persons. But this has not been recognized as conclusive evidence.
In humans, the intestinal inflammation caused by Crohn's disease and the connected diarrhea are not fatal.
Wikipedia: Some evidence supports the theory that Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), along with special variants of the CARD15/NOD2 gene, can cause inflammatory bowel disease in humans as it does paratuberculosis in animals. Cattle that have paratuberculosis and patients with Crohn's disease have an identical mutation in the CARD15/NOD2 gene, which has a similar negative impact on the production of defensins (production of natural antibiotics). MAP causes chronic intestinal inflammation in cattle and other animals and inflammatory reactions and tissue damage to sterile human intestinal samples. Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis induces specific antibodies in humans. These antibodies are found in the blood of up to two thirds of all patients with Crohn's disease.
Tests are currently being conducted to determine if patients can be successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics. Treatment with multiple types of antibiotics has already shown initial success in the United States and Australia. MAP has been detected on several occasions in a number of dairy products. A certain percentage survives the conditions of pasteurization, a process which the majority of milk undergoes during production. (translation of the German text)
Chrohn's disease is a chronic disease that has a high recurrence rate. In most cases, complications that arise make surgical therapy necessary, but this also does not ensure a definite cure.
In the western industrial countries, the annual number of new cases of Crohn's disease lies between 7 and 8 per 100,000 people. The prevalence (number of people who have the condition) is about 150 per 100,000. The number of people with Crohn's disease has increased over the last twenty years (translation of the German text).
The shelf life of raw milk can be extended through the process of cold pasteurization. In this category, the author lists methods such as hydrostatic high-pressure treatment, pulsating high-energy field technology, ultrasound, pulsating high-frequency light, and UV and radioactive radiation. But these processes also considerably decrease the quality of the components found in milk.
Unfortunately, cooling also has serious consequences for milk components such as casein micelles (micelle) and fat globules. They release individual components into the milk plasma. It is mainly the industrial process that changes the milk. This begins with cooling when the milk is collected and includes various steps of quick heating and quick cooling.
Homogenization breaks the fat globules in milk into a smaller, uniform or homogenous size. To do this, the milk is forced through small holes in homogenizers under high pressure. This prevents the milkfat from rising to the top, and there is no longer any cream to skim off. Depending on the use and settings, instead of a diameter of 0.5 to 10 μm, the fat globules can range from 0.2 to 1.5 μm.
Almost all fermented dairy products are made using homogenized milk, but only fresh milk has to declare that it was homogenized on the label. Homogenization guarantees a certain appearance of the milk and allows the milk to be stored longer and processed intensively.
Without explaining how or why, the industry claims that homogenization improves digestion. It has been admitted that homogenization causes people to become allergic to milk proteins, but everything else is denied. It is truly difficult to digest raw milk because casein first forms casein strands in the stomach and then later a compact coagulum (mass of coagulated matter, clot, lump, or curd). This is also the reason why milk was not earlier seen as a food that caused people to gain weight.
With raw milk, a majority of the large fat globules, along with the substances attached to them, pass undigested through the small intestine. This is because the lipases in the human digestion tract don't have the ability break them down. Bacteria in the large intestine then metabolize these substances into free fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids. This has a laxative effect that can cause diarrhea. It is also why many people used to not drink milk. But now with homogenization, milk has been able to sneak in.
The author describes six changes that occur with homogenized milk. She explains how substances like enzymes find themselves encapsulated and are thereby able to pass through the stomach. Other substances end up in the milk plasma, which causes them to increase their biological activity. Using a table, the author then shows the main functions of the following digestive organs: the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
According to an old school of thought, the stomach kills all bacteria that have a pH of 1 to 1.5 and denatures the proteins so that they lose their biological capabilities. The stomach has been called the body's gatekeeper as it protects us from harmful substances.
Also according to this line of thought, hormones and enzymes in our food cannot have any negative impact on human metabolism. But why does the dairy industry advertise active or probiotic yogurts which have added bacteria that change the flora of the large intestine?
The author writes,
If the body's gatekeeper worked perfectly, then we would never have gastrointestinal infections or problems, thereby effectively showing that the idea of the gatekeeper is too much of a simplification of the complicated relationships in the body.
Milk has a pH of 6.7 and changes the acidic environment of the stomach so much that the pepsins and stomach enzymes are severely impaired. At a pH of 6 or lower, they are even inactive. The encapsulated proteins, in particular, are able to reach the small intestine undamaged, where they are then again in an alkaline environment.
The industry even uses the adhesive properties of casein for micro-encapsulation as a way of protecting pharmaceutical substances from the acidic environment of the stomach. This allows them to also reach the small intestine undamaged.
The problematic growth factors IGF-1 and IGF-2 are acid-stable peptides and can pass through the acidic environment of the stomach without being encased in a fat globule.
The digestion process can convert common proteins in our food such as gluten and casein, and also the proteins in eggs and spinach into opioid peptides. These peptides affect the body in a way that is very similar to morphine. Individuals who are not capable of further metabolization of these peptides may develop signs of physical or mental disease.
Pepsin (from the Greek word πέψις pepsis, meaning digestion) is a digestive enzyme called a peptidase that is formed in the main cells of the gastric fundus in mammals and is therefore also produced by humans. It is responsible for breaking down the proteins absorbed from the food we eat.
The thesis of the XO Factor deals with xanthine oxidase (XO or sometimes XAO), which is present in large amounts in dairy milk and as a result of homogenization can enter the intestinal tract via encapsulation. The author writes,
XO is produced in the liver, and is present in larger amounts in the mucous membrane of the small intestine and also in the nerve cells; it plays an important role in the metabolism of purines. If XO is too active, this can lead to gout (p. 231).
The author explains how XO that is freely circulating in the bloodstream oxidizes plasmalogens, changing them into a different substance. The heart muscle is particularly affected by this. In addition, the oxidized fatty aldehydes settle and cause damage to the heart and arteries. Where the plasmalogens are lacking, cholesterol builds up. The author cites the cardiologist Kurt Oster and the biochemist Donald Ross for these initial findings in 1973. In 1983, their book "The XO Factor: Homogenized Milk May Cause Your Heart Attack" was released.
Both researchers and further studies confirm
that people with clinical arteriosclerotic symptoms have more antibodies working against the bovine XO in their blood than other people. The dairy industry, along with government agencies, counterattacked, but did not conduct any further investigations. The problem was simply swept under the table, and no scientific reviews of the XO thesis were carried out.
A wide range of research on homogenized milk has shown that at the very least mice and rats suffer from various intestinal problems and allergies that do not occur without the consumption of homogenized milk. Just compare the statistics on the rates of allergies and intestinal diseases over the last 30 years.
In this chapter, the author describes and criticizes the numerous temperature treatments that milk undergoes:
It is separated, changed, and recombined at will. Raw milk and certified raw milk are processed in a type of milk refinery. She clearly describes the processes of cooling, thermization, storing, and centrifuging, which are then followed by separating and recombining and negative effects for the milk.
The milk plasma and cream can be processed much more effectively when they are separated, and they can then be recombined.
The author informs us that the production of milk for consumption includes 25 to 30 technical steps and numerous temperature treatments. But on the packaging, we still read “fresh milk.” The author asks us how it is that we like the taste of milk that has been heated and then cooled several times. She calculates that our fresh milk is at least 4 to 5 days old by the time we can buy it.
Since 2002, there have been processes for heating the milk at a high temperature for a short time. This extends the shelf life to about three weeks, but the product is not labeled as UHT milk. The technical term for this is ESL milk, which stands for extended shelf life.
For milk powder, the process of drum drying was traditionally used, but this has now been changed over to spray drying. And now it is possible for salmonella to enter the production process from the environment, for example, the building's roof, via the cooled air. Rollinger quotes author Kielwein (pp. 108 and 184) from his book "Leitfaden der Milchkunde und Milchhygiene" (Handbook of dairy science and dairy hygiene):
Since the introduction of spray drying in the production of milk powder, it is not unusual to find salmonella in processed products (p. 246).
It is, however, only possible to get sick if the milk was kept at a warmer temperature for a certain amount of time. Babies, in particular, suffer from intestinal infections and salmonella (salmonellosis).
In this section, the author discusses the historical significance of milk. The Greeks and Romans used quark primarily to make ointments for medical purposes and for cosmetics. They considered drinking milk to be harmful.
In contrast, the nomadic peoples of the Northeast consumed butter, which the Greeks and Romans considered to be a barbaric practice. In Egypt and Palestine, however, butter was a favorite food and source of fat.
In Germany, butter was more widely used as an ointment than as a dietary fat until the Middle Ages. An example of this comes from Hildegard von Bingen. In the late Middle Ages, butter was heated and used as clarified butter or butterfat, because clarified butter can be stored longer. Other methods were salting the butter, storing it away from oxygen and light, and allowing the cream to culture naturally. In these ways, butterfat could be stored for years, although it surely became somewhat rancid.
The author explains how butter is produced today, including the high temperatures that are used, and she writes,
Since the majority of dairy cows are in stalls year-round and receive feed that supports high milk production, butterfat consists primarily of saturated fatty acids (p. 253). And margarine is usually made from skim milk or skim milk powder, and even pure vegetable margarine may contain a milk additive.
The text introduces us to the ways that cream, cream products, and ice cream are made. Gelatin is added to ice cream, for example, in order to extend its shelf life. Multiple rounds of homogenization, heating, cooling, and fractionating the fats make ice cream stay good longer even without cooling and result in a creamy, appetizing mixture that can survive melting and refreezing.
The industrial production of fermented dairy products is unfortunately not the same as it used to be. As well as problematic components such as protein, lactose, and galactose, substances such as histamine, benzoic acid, and a large amount of methionine are added to fermented dairy products.
The glucose breaks down to lactic acid. As soon as the pH has reached a certain low, this process stops. Only about 2% of the lactose remains. The galactose doesn't ferment. In contrast, yeast fermentation, like that which is used, for example, with kefir, also ferments the galactose.
Yogurt is the Turkish word for soured milk, but they use somewhat different types of bacteria in comparison. There are a variety of yogurts including set yogurts, creamy stirred yogurts, and also yogurt drinks (yogurt); the production processes for these vary slightly.
The first bacterium discovered by Ilja Iljitsch Metschnikow (Metschinkoff, 1845–1916) is named Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a bacterium he isolated from milk. Today, this bacterium is used along with Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and the very well-marketed Lactobacillenspezies acidophilus and bifidus.
Companies started producing yogurts on the industrial scale in the 1930s, but it wasn't until the 1970s that industrial mass production with assembly lines began (Gesetz der Massenproduktion (law of mass production) by Karl Bücher).
The basic procedure is to store the milk, clean and centrifuge it, set the desired fat content, kill the natural bacteria via heat treatment, and add specific bacteria. Since today's milk shows traces of antibiotics, bacteria have been bred that react less to these. The goal is to remove all inhibitors.
A further step is to increase the fat-free dry substance of the milk to a certain value by either adding milk powder, whey powder, or milk protein. The alternative is evaporation. In this step, more whey fluid is incorporated into instead of separating it from the set mixture and the result is a higher yield of yogurt.
High-pressure homogenization is then performed so that fat doesn't separate from the yogurt. And here a quick process only has a fermentation time of two to four hours. Stirred yogurts and yogurt drinks are cheap varieties because they can be incubated in large fermentation tanks at 40–45°C (104–113°F) for two hours. Afterwards, flavors are added.
The author then explains the tricks used to increase water binding, including heat treatment at 95–98°C (203–208.4°F) for five minutes so that the protein breaks down and all of the whey can be incorporated. Stirred yogurt also contains thickening agents and yogurt drinks contain stabilizers. Many set yogurts have animal-based gelatin or modified starches in their list of ingredients. The author asks the reader, “Where is the real, natural yogurt?”
Mild yogurt is made by using bacteria that were previously advertised as being especially healthy for the gut flora as they form L-(+)-lactic acid; these are called bifidus and acidophilus bacteria. In this way, the shelf life is extended to at least four weeks, and the yogurt tastes very fresh during this time period.
The population in Eastern Europe, which is primarily lactose intolerant, developed, along with kefir, its fermented dairy production that included a combination of lactic acid and yeast fermentation. This doesn't leave any lactose or galactose remaining, but it does leave a little alcohol.
Since traditional kefir would burst the packaging as a result of the intense fermentation process, the kefir sold in stores today has nothing in common with the traditional version except for its name. This new kefir contains lactose, even when it is mild kefir! And most disturbing is that pasteurization kills the “microlife.”
As a result of a combination of lactic acid and yeast fermentation, traditional kefir contains neither lactic acid nor galactose. There are therefore major differences between traditional fermented dairy products and those produced by the modern dairy industry—but it still advertises its products as having the benefits that traditional fermented dairy products had.
Kefir has its origin in the Balkans and the Caucasus and is made from goat, sheep, or dairy milk. Similar products include kumis made from mare's milk (Russia), milk kvass (kvass) made from whey with yeast (Commonwealth of Independent States), villi (Finland), leben (Middle East and North Africa), and doogh (Iran). These products are made traditionally using a combination of lactic acid and yeast fermentation.
This answers the question of why lactose-intolerant individuals tolerate these type of dairy products that are made traditionally. There are several other types of traditional fermented products that ferment for days, automatically causing the yeast to work and traditional fermentation to take place. In this way, yogurt that is truly produced in a traditional manner contains very little lactose.
The author takes several pages to explain digestion processes and various kinds of fermented dairy products, comparing the production methods used traditionally and today.
In this context, she refers to Andrea Winchenbach's dissertation titled "Prüfung der Essentialität lebender Keime für die Förderung der intestinalen Laktosehydrolyse durch die mikrobielle ß-Galactosidase fermentierter Milchprodukte am Model des gnotobiotischen Göttinger Minischweins" (Testing the essentiality of living microbes for the promotion of intestinal lactose hydrolysis by the microbial beta-galactosidase of fermented dairy products based on the model of the gnotobiotic Göttingen miniature pigs).
The yogurt you can buy at the grocery store contains approximately 3.5 to 5.5 percent lactose, which is usually only labeled as carbohydrates. Even in an organic grocery store, it is almost impossible to find an organic yogurt that doesn't contain added milk powder and isn't pasteurized or homogenized. A 500 g container (about 2 cups) of yogurt has about 41.5 g of lactose.
The provocation test used by medical practitioners to determine lactose intolerance contains 50 g lactose. A provocation test is not beneficial to a patient's health, but it is necessary for clarification purposes. Yogurt causes lactose-intolerant individuals to experience physiological stress.
Maria Rollinger shows why probiotic yogurts are not the answer as they contain
an extremely high level of lactose. She is amazed that such misleading advertising for a particularly easy to digest yogurt is allowed. Prebiotic foods (= prebiotic, not probiotic; see also synbiotics) contain fructooligosaccarides and inulins which cause food to ferment in the large intestine.
“The Ernährungsbericht 2000 (nutrition report released by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, e. V. (German association for nutrition)) concludes that according to the current state of research, the human gut flora is not influenced by pro- and prebiotic foods and that these can even have an adverse effect on people with a weaker immune system.”
She shows how companies use false claims to advertise their products, for example, the way Danone advertises Actimel, and then demands double the price for these—under the title “Audacity increases". Simply compare the list of ingredients. The company Honsha has set another record with the advertising their product Yakult.
This drink consists primarily of water and skim milk powder stirred together with glucose syrup, sugar, flavoring, and Lactobacillus casei Shirota. And it costs twice as much as Actimel. And this is the case despite the fact that the drink is produced using mainly a waste product (skim milk powder).
The fairytale about the supposedly good L-(+)-lactic acid and bad D-(−)-lactic acid (optical activity) finally stopped being used for advertising at the end of the 1990s since the body can produce L-(+)-lactic acid on its own as needed. When lactic acid forms in the intestines, no matter if it is the (L)- or (D)-lactic acid, this causes an undesirable acidification of the environment.
Histamine is formed during every type of fermentation that includes microbial fermenting (Allergo, 1996, No. 6, pp. 346–351, Medizin Verlag GmbH). As a result, lactose-intolerant individuals who consume dairy products are overloaded with histamine.
Specially fermented dairy products such as yogurt and quark significantly increase the amount of methionine and benzoic acid in our diet. The author explains the problems that these two substances cause in chapter 8 (p. 273).
Quark, particularly quark made with skim milk, is a great way for manufacturers to use the huge amount of excess skim milk that results from the production of dairy products and turn it into good money. Quark is actually soured milk from which the watery solution, the whey, has been removed.
Today, lactic acid and rennet enzyme precipitates are stirred in and sometimes coagulation stimulants are also added. In the 1960s and 70s, the draining method was replaced by the quark separator.
The industry now aims for a much higher dry weight by
adding milk plasma or skim milk and whey using quark separators and ultrafiltration followed by standardizing the fat content by adding cream. This results in
a creamy mixture that sells well and has a long shelf life and the same taste.
Today, quark is really only
a product similar to quark with an artificially increased proportion of whey proteins and lactose. With traditional quark, the majority of the whey proteins and lactose were drained off when it was being made.
Quark now consists primarily of casein proteins, whey protein, lactose, and (approx. 82%) water. The author explains the entire production process, including ultrafiltration (UF technology), and the complete denaturation of proteins and their connections with casein that result from heating at 95°C (203°F) for 5 minutes. However, quark is considered a healthy food.
But it is actually something that today makes many people sick (p. 278).
The author also explains how
shelf life is extended by using preservatives and she lists the substances that are added:
sorbic acid and its salts, for example, potassium sorbate, benzoic acid and its derivative sodium benzoate, esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and formic acid and its salts, for example, sodium and potassium formiate.
She also describes thermization as an alternative means of food preservation. In milk refineries, which are state-of-the-art facilities, membrane filtration (membrane technology) is used to separate all of the ingredients of milk.
We also learn that in ancient times, the Romans mixed milk proteins into mortar,
which then became rock-hard, harder than our cement and that today casein proteins are mixed into products such as tile cement. The author talks about the synthetic plastic galalith (“milk stone”) and the casein proteins in the glue used for various industries.
But sodium caseinate is also used in food production (e.g., nondairy creamer) as is milk coprecipitate consisting of casein and whey protein (See the book Trocknungstechnik in der Lebensmittelindustrie (Drying technology in the food industry), p. 462 by Dr. Dietrich Gehrmann et al.).
The author cites the examples of frozen pizza, where the melted cheese is often replaced by cheaper casein; foam and foaming agents in whipping cream, puddings, and creams; and emulsifiers and stabilizers in soups, dressings, meat products, pastes, and pastries.
The pharmaceutical industry uses this substance to encapsulate and then transport substances, and casein products are used
on fruit and vegetable plantations as a spray to preserve the fruits and vegetables and protect them from pests (p. 281).
The author also describes how milk protein and casein used to be put into the same category, but then in the 1930s, it was discovered that casein and whey proteins are two very different milk protein fractions. She explains how confusing it can be reading the labels on products as there are often entirely different terms for the same thing.
Dairy products in Germany may contain up to 15% lactose, and in other countries significantly more. Either way, calcium salts are permitted. However, milk has been classified as an allergenic substance since November 2005 and therefore has to follow special regulations.
Milk is right at the top of the list of major allergens.
Products containing milk ingredients have to be labeled as such, with foods sold at bakeries and butchers being the only exception. When milk components are added to dairy products, this does not have to be labeled either.
Cheese is actually concentrated quark. Depending on the extent of denaturization, cheese can be classified as acid cheese or rennet cheese. However, acid cheese is only sold to a niche market today. It used to be a way to use up the ingredients left over from butter making.
Maria Rollinger explains the various enzymes used to coagulate milk, starting with rennet, which comes from the stomachs of young mammals, all the way to plant-based coagulants. She also describes how natural rennet became a scarce commodity in the 1980s. As a result, rennet substitutes made with mold, yeast, and bacteria were developed.
These change the way the cheese tastes. Rennet interacts, in particular, with chymosin and also with pepsin; today, chymosin is genetically engineered by taking the rennet-producing genes from the calf's stomach and inserting these into a bacteria culture. No special labeling indicating the source of this rennet or the method of production is required.
The author spends several pages explaining how rennet cheese is produced by means of continuous production. The standard fat content is obtained by adding cream or milk plasma.
In both fully and semi-automated production, the standard protein level of the dry matter is achieved through ultrafiltration and/or the addition of milk powder, casein powder, or milk or whey protein concentrate. Or some of the whey proteins that were filtered out of the whey on the previous day are added to the milk used for cheese-making.
She also explains that even the milk used for cheese-making is frequently homogenized.
Nitrates are used to stabilize an imbalance of salt in the milk and to prevent what is called late bloating in cheese, which results from calcium chloride, calcium phosphate, and citrate. Coloring is added to hard and semi-hard cheese. Lithol Rubine BK (E180) is only permitted in the cheese rind as it is classified as a considerable health risk.
The author then talks about the cheese ripening process used today. About ten to eleven liters of milk are needed for about one kilogram of hard or semi-hard cheese. While specialty cheese is often ripened for many years, soft cheese is ripened for 30 days, semi-hard cheese for three to four months, and hard cheese up to six months.
As it is too time-consuming to wash the cheese wheels in salt water each week for the purpose of preventing mold, either the cheese is vacuum-packed in plastic and/or the rind is treated with antifungal antibiotics. In the case of vacuum-packed cheese, square blocks of cheese that take up less space are also often put into ripening boxes.
Today, Emmental cheese is often made with pasteurized milk. Raw milk cheeses like Emmental may not be heated above 57°C (134.6°F). But denaturation takes place at temperatures much lower than this.
According to the most recent European legislation, cheese may be sold as Emmental after only six weeks of ripening in plastic and without a rind. But regulations on cheese actually stipulate longer minimum ripening times. Instead ripening accelerators and flavor enhancers in the form of amino acids are added because without these this cheese wouldn't taste good to anyone (p. 290).
Before the author talks about problems with cheese, she speaks about spreadable cheese, which has been made since the beginning of the twentieth century. Rennet cheese that wasn't able to be put on the market because it didn't meet standards may be used in the production of spreadable cheese.
According to Edgar Spreer, Technologie der Milchverarbeitung (Technology of milk processing), Behr's Verlag (p. 390, 7th edition, 1995), spreadable cheese has the longest list of ingredients.
Along with emulsifying salts (citrate, phosphate, and lactate) and acids (wine and citric acid), butter, clarified butter, cream, lactose, whey paste, whey cream, whey powder, whey protein, stabilizers, coloring, and visible components such as spices are added.
Maria Rollinger writes the following about the spreadable cheese today that is becoming increasingly popular and is very cheap and is available in both softer and firmer varieties, but that is processed in factories at very high temperatures of up to 110°C (230°F).
Parents should be advised to wait as long as possible before allowing their children to try this product, even if or precisely because the advertisements for spreadable cheese are trying to achieve exactly the opposite. Because for children who consume these ingredients regularly, it would be surprising if they didn't get allergies (p. 292).
The author discusses lactose, proteins, lactic acids, galactose, and histamine, which are all in cheese. Roughly calculating, she divides cheese into thirds: protein, fat, and water. Although physicians and dieticians are of the opinion that lactose-tolerant individuals can tolerate cheese, she believes the opposite to be true:
Lactose-intolerant individuals usually have a very strong reaction to cheese.
In the past, people with lactose intolerance may have been able to tolerate cheese, but today it is different as the dry weight is increased during the production process to meet protein standards and/or by the addition of milk powder, and, in particular, lactose. In addition, the lactic acid bacteria is only able to break down a small amount of lactose due to the significantly shorter ripening process.
When cheese is allowed to ripen for a longer period of time, it contains less lactose. But even parmesan contains some lactose. Given the cheese production that exists today, we have to expect whey proteins, casein, and lactose. Dairy milk protein allergies are bound to develop. Cheese contains galactose and usually a lot of lactic acid, 500 to 800 g in 100 g cheese. Hard cheese, in particular, contains a lot of methionine,
an amino acid that can be unhealthy when we consume too much of it, writes the author cautiously.
And the longer that cheese is stored in the grocery store or in the refrigerator at home, the closer that it gets to the edge of putrefaction, something that connoisseurs of soft cheese love. And in the process, more and more biogenic amines, primarily histamine and tyramine and in smaller amounts also cadaverine and putrescine. Biogenic amines form as the final stage of protein breakdown.
Cadaverine and pentamethylendiamine are common names for pentane-1.5-diamine, a diamine that is formed when the amino acid lysine breaks down protein microbiologically through the process of decarboxylation. It is a ptomaine isolated from decaying corpses (also called cadaveric poison). However, cadaveric poison consists of a number of other substances and is not the cause of well-poisoning, something that used to be feared. The problem is a result of bacterial toxins (e.g., the proteins botulinum toxin and tetanus toxin) or an infection.
Wikipedia on tyramine (translation of German version): “Tyramine forms when proteins are broken down and is often found in foods which are fermented during the production process, for example, many types of cheese, wine, and chocolate. It is also found in bananas and viscum, and in the berries of the latter even in toxic levels.”
The author explains how biogenic amines affect the body and the problems that can occur if the intestines are attacked or there is a lack of degradation enzymes. Then even the smallest amount of biogenic amines can cause serious ailments,
as histamine is present in large amounts in the small intestine when it is damaged. These types of direct allergic immune reactions can cause migraines, and stomach, intestinal, and circulatory problems, or even lead to anaphylactic shock.
She bemoans the fact that there is very little recognition of the connection between gastrointestinal and allergic reactions even though the cheese effect is indeed well known.
Many lactose-intolerant individuals who consume dairy products develop a chronic histamine intolerance. She also describes the trials by bread and cheese (trial by ordeal) in the Middle Ages.
Whey, formerly called cheese water in Europe, is actually a waste product of the cheese-making process and of the production of quark (although less so) and contains up to 94% water;
the rest is lactose (4.5%), whey protein (1%), and some residual fat and casein. The author estimates that today this waste product, which used to be undesirable, amounts to 150 million tons annually. If whey were allowed to enter the wastewater, it would be toxic for fish and microorganisms.
Within only a few hours, whey changes into a broth that neither people nor animals would enjoy. In 2005, 2.3 million tons of whey powder were produced. The powder stays good for a very long period of time as it has been heated to ultrahigh temperatures and concentrated to a powder. Cheese production has increased dramatically in the last few years in milk-drinking countries, with Europe being responsible for more than half of the whey waste.
The industry, with the support of research, has been successful in developing new products. The production of whey drinks and other products containing whey brought the industry a step closer to its goal of selling the unpopular whey as products. Numerous additives are used to improve the taste of these drinks or they are fermented to make alcoholic beverages, and then marketed to sell. Bioethanol and biogas made from whey are other possibilities.
Even more problematic are the hidden additions of milk components added to other types of foods. Several years ago, this method accounted for about 50% of the sales of skim milk powder. Just as in the United States, Europe aimed to sell 70% or more for this purpose in 2010. Today, this amount has certainly been achieved or exceeded. Thanks to the ultrafiltration of whey proteins, the dry matter of cheese and quark can be increased.
The proteins and lactose are also separated out and added to dairy products and other types of food. Adding
particulate whey protein gives low-fat products a full, creamy, and rich texture (mouthfeel). But now this is also being added to normal dairy products such as semi-hard, soft, and spreadable cheese, cream cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, ice cream, and dessert products (p. 299).
There are even products out there like “Bleib gesund Molke-Riegel” (whey breakfast bar made by the company Bleib Gesund), which contains 24% sweet whey powder, 7.4 % whey protein concentrate, glucose syrup, and other ingredients—and naturally other types of similar sweeteners. For critics, the name "Bleib gesund Molke-Riegel" must come across as really ironic.
Maria Rollinger then moves on to the issue of the supposedly healthy whey drinks (Molkentrinkkuren) that are touted in health food stores and the healthfood sections of grocery stores. Even the Romans had to deal with the problem of whey. After feasts, they followed doctors' recommendations and did bowel cleansings by drinking fresh whey, which worked as a laxative.
Today, whey products are big business as whey powder can be sold for between 13 and 16 euros, but it only costs 50 cents to produce. And fresh whey from naturally fed cows is seen to be comparable to the highly processed waste product of the modern dairy industry. Reconvalescence treatments used to take place near dairies, and this is how many health resorts came into being.
And now the industry is promoting whey and whey powder drinks in all flavors as a health drink and lifestyle product
in gyms and other healthy spots and in cheap grocery stores. But actually it is simply a laxative—because its lactose content is too high.
Adding lactose has more complications. As a result, the EU started a research project in 1999 aimed at increasing the value of lactose. The justification was the following:
The most significant barrier to marketing lactose is lactose intolerance which both consumers in and outside of the EU have (EC FAIR2-CT96-1048, EC project). The Fair Flow Europe (FFE) project has since been concluded.
In 2000, Günter Brack wrote an article titled "Milchzucker für Backwaren - ein Beitrag zum Abbau von Agrarüberschüssen" (Lactose for baked goods—contributing to the reduction of agricultural surplus) that appeared on the BAGKF website, a former federal agency now called Bundesanstalt für Ernährung und Lebensmittel (federal agency for food and diet):
People set out to convince the bakeries of the benefits of lactose, for example, its low cost, so that they would add more of it to their yeast-risen pastries. This would increase their dough production and be financially advantageous, and fortunately, they would not be required to declare lactose as an additive (p. 300).
It is a well-established fact that lactose-intolerant individuals suffer when they eat these kinds of products, but this is simply ignored.
In cases of doubt, bakery chains must now admit that not a single one of their products is truly lactose free ... But who would connect their digestion problems to the delicious bread that they believe contains only flour, salt, and water?
The bottom line:
people are going through life with an increasing number of disease symptoms and simply aren't able to identify the cause. Inflammations of the digestive organs, intestinal problems, multiple allergies, and skin diseases are only the most obvious results of the additional lactose and milk protein in our food (p. 304).
The author spends 13 pages summarizing the following topics: taste, wrongdoings, myths, lifting the taboo, repressing the times of BSE, ideology, and special interests. Milk? Better not!
Dairy products today are produced by the industry to have the best possible consistency and taste. The dairy industry's path to success began shortly after World War II. We now consume around 30 to 50 percent of our daily caloric intake in the form of milk, which has never before been the case.
Characteristic of today:
instead of using our discerning taste to occasionally enjoy true delicacies, today we want, can, and have to—thanks to manipulated products—snack daily on pasteurized, homogenized, sweetened, gelatin-stabilized skim products that are made to taste mild, creamy, and delicate.
We get children used
to their happiness at an early age by giving them cocoa, strawberries, vanilla, and similar things. We make them toast with chocolate spread or spreadable cheese, both of which are rich in phosphates and have additives such as milk powder. And the cornflakes and cereal they have are also with milk.
The author lists the temptations that adults face such as fresh bread (with a lot of gluten) with garlic butter or pizza with cheese, crème-fraîche in sauces, Brie, Camembert, aged Gouda, Parmesan to round off the meal, followed by ice cream or even whipped cream. The chocolate we grant ourselves as a reward contains milk powder. For a light snack, we turn to herb quark and whole grain bread, yogurt, acid cheese, Harzer cheese, or Handkäse, and we put yogurt dressing on our salad.
Maria Rollinger sees the following as major wrongdoings: taking the milk away from the cows, holding cows captive in poor conditions, and expecting them to have maximum production up until their much-too-early death. Dairy products are much more harmful than meat as they are protein and fat bombs and at the same time hormone cocktails. Readers will recognize this if they have understood the content of the book.
Milk is actually meant to be drunk at body temperature, directly from the udder, or in the case of infants, directly from the mother's breast.
The root of this complex problem lies deep and can't be explained solely by interest-driven politics of powerful economic lobbies, along with the associated academic circles (p. 307).
In the section titled “Der Mythos" (The myth), the author describes how our age-old ideas of motherly nourishment still play a role and how the historical position of cows and milk are exploited and people immediately think of the Old Testament with the land where milk (for butter) and honey, actually manna, flow.
When talking about taboos, she explains the reasons for witch-hunts, the revulsion to fresh milk as a bodily fluid coming from another species, today's alienation from the origin of milk through intensive industrial processing, and our suppression of BSE by separating the animal and the product in our minds, which is not so much the case with meat.
In the section on ideology and special interests, the author shows how half-truths about milk, fat, protein, and cholesterol are maintained and how the few critical voices out there receive almost no attention from the media.
As well as the concentrated market power of the food, pharmaceutical, and diet and fitness industries, a lack of critical journalism frequently contributes to this situation. There are a variety of reasons why it's not surprising that readers often tune out and dismiss new nutrition suggestions with a shrug of the shoulder. As a result of contradictions, many people tend to throw any theory on the subject overboard and live according to their own tastes (p. 313).
The image we have of clean white dairy products being traditional, pristine, natural, and healthy is an illusion. It is always
an end product from a milk factory, cooled, stacked in tanks, stirred, separated, centrifuged, directed over plate heat exchangers, pushed through hundreds of meters of piping, valves, pumps, and homogenizers, separated into fractions, and combined again.
Nowhere else have the principles of the assembly line had such a strong effect on our food (except for perhaps in the case of soy).
She then moves on to “Milch, Politik und Propoganda” (Milk, politics, and propaganda) and describes the high political sensitivity that is seen in milk countries. Milk is the main source of income in the agriculture sector and is subject to strict state and
supranational regulations (p. 314). In this section, she emphasizes the differences of and integration problems for new EU members whose farmers only own a few animals. Major structural reforms are planned here.
That which has taken decades in Western Europe, is surely now coming very quickly. As a result, many people will experience great suffering. Instead of expecting that living conditions in poorer sectors of the population will improve, we must assume the opposite. The author then summarizes the topics covered.
Following this, the author cites and comments on a large number of books that deal with the problems of milk. She notes that the dairy industry established a Global Dairy Forum at its World Dairy Expo in autumn 2006 in order to have increased lobbying and counterbalance the growing antimilk movement. The final sentence of the book reads:
Do you think we would have appreciated milk as much if it were red, brown, or even black.
|Title||MILCH besser nicht! (Milk, better not!)|
|Subtitle||A book of critical readings|
|Publ. Date||2004, revised and updated edition 2007, reprinted 2013|
|Comment||This is the most comprehensive critical book about milk that I know of, at least in German. Very well researched.|
Prof. Dr. Marcel Hebbelinck (Member of the scientific advisory board of VEBU, Vegetarierbund Deutschland [German Vegetarian Society) wrote the following review:
As a result to the many elaborate advertising campaigns, most consumers consider dairy products to be nutritious and healthy. This story line was and still is carefully constructed by the producers of dairy products and supported by supposedly scientifically based statements.
The relatively high calcium content is particularly stressed. Critical questions are only rarely asked, and scientific research pointing to possible negative effects is almost never discussed. Exceptions are the problem of lactase deficiency in a part of the population, as well as a possible milk protein allergy.
A book such as this one is therefore rather the exception: a comprehensive overview of the various aspects of milk and other dairy products, as viewed culturally, ethically, economically and statistically, ecologically, technologically, legally, hygienically, and medically.
The author of this book is a lawyer who came across this subject as part of her work as she was reading a study of European directives on milk and dairy products. She has written, along “with expert help from Ulrike Martin-Plonka (nutritionist who specializes in the treatment of food allergies),” a multifaceted, comprehensive, and critical evaluation of milk and dairy products. Many interesting and “sometimes unexpected” aspects are critically analyzed.
The fact that many people get sick from consuming milk and dairy products was new to the author and she therefore begins her book with an in-depth look at the subject of milk. Nutritionists and physicians, in particular, will find the discussions about the causal involvement of milk and dairy products in the emergence of serious diseases (including diabetes, atherosclerosis, hyperhomocysteinemia, eye diseases, and breast cancer) to be of great interest.
The essential differences in the composition of human milk and the milk of other mammals are very well known.
How the dairy cow is repeatedly impregnated, why the calf is taken away from its mother, how the cow is milked by machines and how milk production is increased, the problem with growth hormones and antibiotics, European legislation on this subject, and the unresolved question of the possible transmission of BSE through cow's milk are just some of the many topics addressed in this book.
The “relationship of milk and calcium and bone formation” is thoroughly and critically looked into. The recent assertion that milk can be used for weight reduction is also analyzed.
The author explains how it came about that modern people went from relatively moderate consumption of milk as a natural farm product to mass consumption of today's industrial product.
Since the end of World War II and even more so after 1970, the dairy industry has undergone exponential growth with the use of modern machine technology for the production of milk resulting in an enormous increase in the consumption of cheese, yogurt, cream, and ice cream in particular. It is also impressive to read about how many different foods contain milk ingredients.
This book may come across as being complicated from time to time, but it is quite fascinating and instructive to read. Moreover, much emphasis is placed on the explanations of concepts from the areas of food biochemistry, health, and pathology. For example, it covers a lot of interesting information about lactose and milk protein (especially casein). Many facts are brought to light that you usually don't find in conventional manuals on nutrition.
Maria Rollinger has done an in-depth review of the scientific literature. Throughout the book, there are footnotes with references to websites, scientific references, and additional information. The appendix contains a glossary of frequently used foreign terms, references, Internet addresses, and an index.
Anyone who is interested in the subject of milk as a common food product will profit from reading this book and can then draw their own conclusions.
This article has convinced me. I'm going to order the book right away. I was a staunch dairy fan for 35 years. However, after my son was born, it was determined that he was allergic to the milk protein in dairy milk and since I was still breastfeeding him, my doctor recommended that I also completely give up dairy ingredients. That’s not easy because dairy products are in practically everything, I found out. But I decided to do this for the benefit of my child and after a few weeks I found out that I probably had a milk allergy, too.
After I stopped drinking milk, my acne and my bad hay fever (which didn't even get better after four years of immunotherapy) disappeared completely. Since this happened, I really can't say anything positive about milk. Unfortunately, I am not taken very seriously in restaurants, and they often bring out a tray with crème brûlée or other desserts with dairy even though I tell them right at the beginning that I have a milk allergy.
In the eyes of most people I know, milk is still something very healthy, and they think that my son and I are to be pitied.
A physician, Dr. Ro ... MD, responded with the famous German saying: Dairy milk is good for calves.
The author, a lawyer, born in 1954, has had the opportunity to personally experience the life and living conditions in several other countries.
Ulrike Martin-Plonka (who assisted with research for the book) runs a self-help group in Fürth, Germany, for individuals who are lactose intolerant or have food allergies.
The publisher also has links to websites about the book: www.milchlos.de and www.milchbessernicht.de (both in German), with a direct order option that includes free shipping (payment in advance) and has a return policy of 14 days! The book is only available in German.
“Would you like to know more about the legend of the Milchhexe (milk witch), the phrase 'the milkmaid's reckoning' that is used in German, find out when humanity began consuming massive amounts of dairy products, how long a turbo cow lives on average, what the deal is with cloned cows, what scientists say on behalf of the European Union as to how cows are currently being kept, why milk no longer goes sour, but spoils, what differentiates the yogurt of today from traditional yogurt, who on this planet is lactose intolerant and why, what diseases are associated with dairy products, and ultimately why we suffer from calcium deficiencies in spite of our high milk consumption? If so, you can find the answers here and references to sources where you can read more.
A food thriller, exciting from beginning to end.
© CC-by-sa 2.0, Ernst Erb, Foundation Diet and Health Switzerland
Bibliography, p. 318. I counted 113 sources cited.
The author lists numerous scientific studies on the text pages in footnotes.
Internet addresses, p. 329 (42 listed); abbreviations, p. 333; glossary, p. 335; index beginning on pages 345–350.
On Amazon the book has proven to be very popular, as shown by 44 customer reviews (October 2014). The maximum number of 5 stars was awarded 38 times (followed by 4× ****, 1× ***, 1× **, and no 1 star * reviews)!
I am including terminology here so that this important article—also for mothers who are breast-feeding—can be easily found via search machines. Medications, milk pump or breast pump if the infant has difficulty breast-feeding, breast milk, but also during pregnancy (gestation, gravidity), panacea or milk ejection reflex and letdown reflex. The word mother's milk is not used in this article, but if you do a Control-F search for the term breast milk, you will get to the majority of the sections on the topic. Lactiferous glands refer to the mammary glands in humans, or rather female breasts. Breast engorgement can lead to inflammation of the breast. Continue regular breast-feeding and massage/rub the engorged area. See also midwife. And on the website mamiweb.de:
A figure from 1780 that today seems rather alarming. Of the 21,000 children born in Paris who were registered, 17,000 were born at home with the help of midwives.