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Book review "MILK The Deadly Poison" by Robert Cohen

You will find out about a host of diseases caused by milk (products) including well-researched studies from scientists the world over.

Book "MILK The Deadly Poison" by Robert Cohen and text to the right.© CC-by-sa 2.0, Catalina Sparleanu, PhD, Foundation Diet and Health Switzerland


From a world company we received the demand for not using 4864 different names. They are mainly prescription drugs, etc. Including "I" for the active ingredient in the body that inhibits diabetes. We now use "shortcuts" and have deleted some passages and numerous helpful links. The original contribution can only be viewed by members (membership is possible at the top left of our pages, EE June 2019).


Milk and dairy products are so well marketed that it is difficult for readers to take the contents of this book seriously enough. Only people who have acquired their own factual information independent of the food industry can understand the data provided in the book. Just on the subject of osteoporosis, the book makes clear how dishonest the food industry has been in manipulating the public opinion.

Minimally read the PDF report of a respected and very independent medical professor under the heading of mineral water. This PDF is in one of the yellow boxes and you can click on it to enlarge it.

Besides the combination of the components in milk which is harmful to humans, there is the problem of "growthhormones". A calf needs to gain 2.2 to 3.3 lbs a day...

Just like the dairy industry, this book also shows some one-sided research results. Therefore I wrote a later article on milk and dairy products, which is as balanced as possible; because nothing exists that has only disadvantages or only advantages.

Enough results from large studies can be found here, which prove explicitly that one should not use milk and dairy products, except as an infant and then it should be breast milk from the infant’s mother, who likewise should not consume dairy products for minimally the duration of the time she nurses!

Ask yourself this question: Why is there very little to no incidence of osteoporosis in countries with no or very low milk consumption and much less cardiovascular diseases?

The fact is that animal protein encourages the loss of calcium through the urine because it lowers the body's pH level, and because of sulfur-containing amino acids and sodium in milk.

Vegetable proteins, however, tend to integrate calcium into the bones. This is because there is enough magnesium. Vitamin D is also important for the absorption of calcium in the bones along with magnesium. However, oxalates, phytates and other substances can interfere with calcium absorption as well.

I have to admit, I do find the book "Milk Better Not!" by Maria Rollinger, better researched and more comprehensive. You can find a detailed book review on it here. I believe it is the best book on the subject. Unfortunately it is only available in German at this time.

1. Summary

Robert Cohen, an ardent opponent of milk and dairy products, reports what trickery Monsanto and its minions used to get approval for the genetically engineered "BovineGrowthHormone" rBGH ("Posil..") in the US. This can now also be found in the milk and blood of those who consume it.

The author takes up the possible reasons for diseases caused by milk and dairy product consumption especially in the last quarter of the book. They are documented through scientific studies. Animal welfare, ecology, and environmental awareness are addressed very briefly. The book essentially focuses on human health.

Redaction comment

The extreme title catches a lot of attention. But the author and his book leave room for attack, which led to retaliatory responses, mostly by representatives of the dairy industry. Based on a photo of the author taken four years after the publication of the book, i.e. 2002, I have to assume that he preaches water and drinks wine. See below. On his website he writes in his blog about fasting for 205 days in 1999 to 2000. Through my own experience with fasting, I must say that I doubt the truth of certain statements he makes on that.

After all, he presents 337 mostly verifiable references which are often based on studies. He lists many distinctive scientists on whose findings he based his statements. The dairy industry was not able to suppress everything Robert Cohen revealed.


  1. Wholesome Milk: The Dairy Industry Message (Page 1)
  2. A Brief History of Milk in America (Page 11)
  3. Milk Has Changed: Genetic Engineering (Page 25)
  4. Scientific Proof: Milk Hormones Are Hazardous to Your Health (Page 67)
  5. The Domino Effect: How FDA Misled America (Page 97)
  6. The Plot Thickens: Collusion Between Monsanto, FDA & Congress (Page 127)
  7. The Fourth Estate: What America Was Told About the "New" Milk (Page 173)
  8. (Not So) Wholesome Milk (Page 189)
  9. Milk Consumption: A Second Opinion From the Medical Establishment (Page 209)
  10. Analysis: What is in Milk (Page 235)
  11. Cancer: The Link Between "GrowthHormones" in Milk and Dairy Consumption (Page 245)
  12. The Truth About Calcium, Osteoporosis and Milk Allergies (Page 257)
  13. Mad Cow Disease and Prions: A Brightening Biological Forecast (Page 275)
  14. Alternatives to Milk (+ 337 Referenzen ab S. 289 + Index S. 307-317) (Page 283)

References (Page 289)

Index (Page 307)

Abridged cover copy, etc.

America's drugstores and supermarkets are full of remedies that are intended to counteract diseases which were created by milk and dairy products: pills for headaches, sprays against nasal stuffiness, nasal drops and antihistamines (histamine antagonists) for the relief of allergic symptoms or remedies to bring relief from gas, bloating, diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome due to lactose intolerance.

Such complaints plague three quarters of mankind. Casein is now recognized in children to be the cause of mucosal inflammation, runny nose (rhinitis) and earaches (otitis).

According to author Robert Cohen, a sip of milk contains hundreds of different substances that exert a powerful biological action. These include proteins and hormones, fat and cholesterol, pesticides, artificial vitamin D, viruses and bacteria.

Milk also contains certain pathogens such as bovine leukemia (bovine leukemia virus BLV), in other words enzootic bovine leukosis, tuberculosis in cattle and bovine immunodeficiency virus (lentiviruses). Today's milk differs massively from the milk before the Second World War.

The supposedly healthy milk contains disease-causing "GrowthFactors" (specific proteins). At least in the US, Monsanto has been having cows injected with genetically engineered "growthhormones" to increase milk production. These genetically engineered "growthhormones" of course show up in the milk that one drinks.

Monsanto invested a billion dollars to get this artificial hormone passed by the political authorities. The argument was that the artificial "growthhormone" would be indistinguishable from the natural one, which is not true.

Despite warnings about the health effects of dairy consumption, the dairy industry (milk production, milk processing, milk marketing) has increased sales every year.

Milking carousel in a farm in Großerkmannsdorf.© CC-by-sa 3.0, Gunnar Richter, Wikipedia

If we compare the consumption of dairy products and beer, we cannot talk about beer bellies, but would have to explain about the milk bellies.

The evidence is shown in this link for abdomen.

What are the disadvantages of milk?

I’ll summarize the important points. We should distinguish between the effects of milk consumption in specific cases and the consequences of many years of milk consumption with today’s average amounts consumed. In the first case, problems occur immediately or within a short period of time.

But most diseases arise only after decades of dairy products consumption, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, and coronary heart disease. Statistics also show an increase of certain types of cancer with increased milk consumption, but it has been difficult to get unambiguous verification.

Scheme of body height loss in osteoporosis by Prof. Dr. Karl-Hans Arndt© Public Domain, Karlarndthans, Wikipedia

Interested consumers can’t see the forest before the trees

Ask a doctor what you should do to prevent osteoporosis. He will recommend dairy products. But milk and dairy products will bring about the exact opposite result and that is clearly proven.

The dairy industry is aware of the scientific works on this subject. Osteoporosis mainly affects women. Chronic diseases caused by milk often begin with joint osteoarthritis (arthritis) in the hip and/or knee, or finger joints.

Too many small factors are brought into play and the industry can produce immediate counter-studies.

A statistic can be manipulated according to their interests and thus almost anything is provable. If it doesn’t fit their interest, then the study is deemed "not valid" or other reasons are found to reject it.

Interested consumers can’t see the forest before the trees. However, a logician will recognize a connection just by the number of "growthhormones" in the milk and how they show up in our blood.

Whether you will suffer directly or indirectly from cow’s milk also depends on your genes and their expression. Unfortunately, no one makes money from describing risks of milk consumption, except perhaps the book’s author. That's why these facts are usually not known to the public.

The extremely positive image of the dairy industry has been impressed on you for your whole life and it acts like a doctrine which includes advice from all levels of conventional medicine.

Some genetically caused problems such as lactose intolerance show up immediately. Others show up in infants or small children, such as juvenile diabetes or certain inflammations in the ENT area (paranasal sinuses, tonsils, and ear). Allergies can show up immediately or years, even decades later.

Through complete elimination of milk and dairy products off of one’s diet and limited consumption of other animal proteins, such ailments can be cured, if not too advanced, in about 3 months. Many such success stories exist. A good amount of exercise and sports is also beneficial.

In studies on milk and dairy products, researchers found the following conditions common in children who drank milk: allergies, ear and tonsil infections (otitis, tonsillitis), bedwetting (enuresis), bronchial asthma, intestinal bleeding (gastrointestinal bleeding), colic and diabetes (diabetes mellitus type 2, juvenile diabetes). In adults the medical conditions tends to be coronary heart disease, arthritis, allergies, sinusitis (sinus infections), leukemia, lymphoma (lymph node cancer), and other cancers. (Page 212)

Dairy products and acne

Forehead of a 14 year old boy with "Adolescent Acne".© Public Domain, Henryart, Wikipedia

The German Wikipedia asserts the following: A retrospective statistical, not placebo-controlled study in 2005 by Clement Adebamowo (Boston/USA) asserted to have found that there is a statistical link between the consumption of certain dairy products and the onset of acne in young women by analysis of questionnaires from more than 47'000 nurses.

You can find three studies that prove that in the English Wikipedia under Acne!

Are there substitutes for milk?

Three sides of a carton box with almond milk in the USA, 2013. Right of it our text.© CC-by-sa 4.0, Collage Catalina Sparleanu, PhD, Foundation Diet and Health Switzerland

Section 2.14 contains a summary on milk alternatives. My notes confirm that there are more concentrated sources of calcium other than milk. Compared to milk, you can receive several times the amount of calcium from certain vegetables.

Humans have been consuming animal milk for only a few thousand years and started drinking milk even more recently. This is less than one percent of homo-sapiens’ existence.

Good milk substitutes for calcium are kale, broccoli, fennel, leek, pak choi, almonds, figs and some mineral waters or suitable drinking water. The residential community should know the composition of drinking water.

After the book review I list books on the subject of milk and dairy products.

Statements by scientists and/or physicians in the book

Prof. Dr. Benjamin Spock M.D. pointed out that children under one year of age should not be given cow's milk. He created the standard work on infant and child care in 1946. His main argument against cow's milk: Negative reactions to "cow hormones" that pass through the stomach because milk temporarily neutralizes stomach acid to a pH of 6.

Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recognized that the human body does not absorb the iron in cow’s milk properly. AAP is the largest organization of pediatricians.

In April 1995, Dr. Neal D. Barnard M.D., author of Food for Life and director of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, listed a large number of reasons why dairy products are not appropriate for human consumption and often cause disease.

He points out: There is no nutritional requirement for dairy products, and there are serious problems that can result from the proteins, sugar, fat and contaminants in milk products. (Page 100)

Problem areas which are treated are, for example, immunoglobulins, i.e. antibody proteins in the milk, lactoferrin, a protein with multifunctional enzyme activities (catalyst activity) and other substances. Some of these are quite different in amount and effect as compared to human milk (breast milk).

The lysosomes of human milk with their digestive enzymes affect the intestinal flora of an infant very significantly. Breast milk contains about 30 times more of it than cow's milk, for important reasons.

Also various "growthhormones" determine the future intestinal flora. In children, who were breastfed you can find amazing differences compared to infants who received infant formula or baby food quite early.

Dr. Robert Kradjian M.D. points out the chaos that the so-called scientific studies cause with physicians and consumers, because most of these studies are done on behalf of the industry and are set up in such a way as to create the result suiting their needs. Critical studies are a small minority, which generate very little attention.

Cow's milk contains so little iron compared to breast milk that anemia occurs (Dr. Frank A. Oski in "The Journal of Pediatrics", 1983: 72-253). Oski was the director of the Johns Hopkins Children's Center and is the author of "Do Not Drink Your Milk". He received the E. Mead Johnson Award in 1972 from the Society for Pediatric Research (a member of the American Pediatric Society).

Dr. John Postley M.D. lists milk as one of the main evils regarding allergies in his book "The Allergy Discovery Diet". We should pay attention to the ingredients, such as grains (gluten) and casein in products.

Even Harvey and Marilyn Diamond write in their bestseller "Fit for Life", that nothing undermines health more than milk and dairy products. They specifically mention the cholesterol in milk and dairy products, the allergies and lies about the effects of calcium in cow’s milk.

Human - cow - sheep - goat - horse milk comparison (according to Wikipedia - German, July 2014, Breastmilk)

Content/100 ml Human Cow Sheep Goat Horse
Water 87,2 % 87,5 % 82,7 % 86,6 % 90,1 %
Carbohydrate 7,0 % 4,8 % 6,3 % 3,9 % 5,9 %
Fat 4,0 % 3,5–4,0 % 5,3 % 3,7 % 1,5 %
Protein 1,5 % 3,5 % 4,6 % 4,2 % 2,1 %
Trace minerals 0,3 % 0,7 % 0,9 % 0,8 % 0,4 %
kcal 70 64–68 86 65 43
kJ 294 268–285 361 273 180
Potassium (mg) 47 141
Sodium (mg) 14 45
Potassium:Sodium 3,4 3,0
Calcium (mg) 33 116
Magnesium (mg) 3 12
Calcium:Magnesium 11 10
Iron (µg) 58 59
Phosphor (mg) 15 92

We are not aware that only a small percentage of people show no lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance can be developed later by not consuming milk for a few years.

Rough rates of lactose intolerance in different regions of the world.© CC-by-sa 3.0, Rainer Renz, Wikipedia

Personal Comments

"MILK The Deadly Poison" is an exaggerated title for this book and yet the direction is right. But the billion dollar marketing budgets of the dairy and food industry leave no room to access popular public print media and electronic media. The advertising income is too high. The advertising would be canceled quickly, not only for milk and dairy products.

Surely, you believe milk was particularly healthy, do you not?

Robert Cohen explains in his preface how the knowledge that the Monsanto Agricultural Company manipulated the natural "growthfactor" in cow's milk shook him up in the summer of 1994. Employees of Monsanto figured out how the Coli bacteria (Escherichia coli) and the genetic material of the cow could be combined to form a new "growthhormone". Cows injected with it are supposed to have increased milk production. That's doping of defenseless animals.

The book was published in 1998, after three years of work (actually four), in a time when 25 million women over 40 suffered from bone destructive arthritis and/or osteoporosis in the United States. (Page xi) These women drank an average of more than one liter of milk per day throughout their life. He then posed the question why doctors were not recognizing this connection. Doctors did not ask themselves why the high milk consumption did not prevent these diseases, although milk consumption is supposed to prevent osteoporosis.

This brings up the question of what the real reasons for the condemnation of milk actually are. Because attentive consumers now recognize from various sources that there are good reasons to avoid dairy products. But we rarely find the hard facts. Although the information has been available for decades, it remains hidden from consumers as if locked up in a poison cabinet.

Monsanto hasn’t yet managed to obtain approval for the genetically engineered "growthhormone" in Europe. That's why I address the problems caused by the added hormones and the reasons why the competent authorities completely failed only very briefly.

The reasons mainly include the intimate interdependence of industry and scientists, influence in the sense of manipulation of politics by lobbyists (lobbying) in the departments (institutions) and, finally, the indirect control of the mass media (fourth estate) by the companies of the industry and trade.

Surely, you believe milk was particularly healthy, do you not? Even vegans abstain sometimes from dairy products simply because they are against the suffering of animals, not because of the effects of milk. This book is not interesting because Cohen wrote it, but because he so painstakingly amassed facts from others. That was a very big job.

The facts were partly created by highly respected scientists with studies funded independent of the dairy industry. They show such a different picture than the studies authorized by the dairy industry, that you barely want to trust it.

Although these scientists published very convincing evidence in the best scientific journals, the truth has no chance against the overwhelming power of manipulation described above with billion dollar budgets for propaganda. Moreover, few people can weigh those facts properly and reflect on the matter with the onslaught of the constant propaganda.

Thus, a rethinking by the public (or masses) is not possible. How, when even doctors believe such tales as “milk is good against osteoporosis?” And why should doctors get a different view if the myth is deeply embedded in their mind and where training invitations come from the industry representatives? They have to stick to the dogmas or the dictums (doctrines), which they have been taught.

About the author

Robert Cohen began a hunger strike on November 7, 1999, which he kept up for 205 days until 29 May 2000 according to his website

He writes every day in his blog, among others things, about the history of the approval of Monsanto's artificial "growthhormone" (Monsanto was also the developer of Roundup) and other injustices. His site has an Alexa rank of 649,579 and Google PR4, suggesting quite a few readers.

Robert Cohen, April 2001 on© Courtesy of Rolf Rentmeister,

Picture of Robert Cohen holding a lecture in March 2001.

How does this portrait fit with an alleged fasting of a total of 205 days until May 2000, unless he was drinking alcohol instead of water?

The Dr. title in Echoworld is not his problem. Is psychoneuroendocrinologist correct? I got no answer from him. In this profession you study the hormonal system associated with behavior and experience.

Foreword by Jane Heimlich, abbreviated

Jane Heimlich, the author of the foreword, is author of the book "What Your Doctor Won’t Tell You". She remembers her father's words, when she didn’t finish drinking her daily milk which shows how we are conditioned, based on lies.

The most common lie claims that the calcium of milk strengthens the bones, while the opposite actually happens. Explanations about that follow in the book.

It shows that so-called skimmed milk is still too fat and rich in "bad" cholesterol. She mentions antibiotics, bacteria and pus as the content of the milk.

You find out that Monsanto put $500 million towards research and development. This is supposed to achieve a higher milk yield by farmers (by 20 %, through direct injection of synthetic "growthhormone" "Posil.." (not Prosilac) in the cows). The name of the artificial hormone gets slightly amended by adding an r in front of "bovineSomatoTropin" (bST or BST, "bovinesomatotropin" or BGH for "BovineGrowthHormone") which stands for recombined.

This "growthhormone" produced by Eschericchia coli thus is called rBST or rBGH (recombinant "BovineGrowthHormone" or rBST for recombinant bovine "somatotr...."). Posilac is the trademark of Monsanto. Licensees may use other brand names.

Jane Heimlich believes that milk already loses its natural quality to a large extent by pasteurization and even homogenization. In fact, injecting cows with rBGH requires the use of considerably higher amounts of antibiotics to handle mastitis, udder inflammation.

The German Wikipedia even says: As a side effect, the cow can suffer udder inflammation and pus gets produced, which is excreted into the milk. As a countermeasure, an increased use of antibiotics is recommended. Moreover, hormone components and antibiotics go directly into the cow's milk.

In English Wikipedia also says: Milk from rBST-treated cows is not, however, chemically identical to traditional milk. Milk from rBST-treated cows contains slightly elevated levels of hormones such as BST, and the "InsulinlikeGrowthFactor 1" (IGF1).

But she is most concerned about the large proportion of "InsulinlikeGrowthFactors" in milk (IGF, but here IGF-1). These are considered a key factor in the "growing" of cancer cells.

She criticizes the government bodies (departments, agencies) that were responsible for the approval, as well as the WHO and the professional organization of physicians, the American Medical Association (AMA). They would not listen to the increasing criticism of dairy farmers and have failed in their examination.

Robert Cohen collected facts for three years to finally come to the conclusion that dairy products cause heart disease (cardiovascular disease) and increased risk of breast cancer. The reader learns that milk is not only a poor calcium source, but why milk is a primary cause of allergies and much more.

One doesn’t just have to believe Cohen. The book shows the processes and facts concerning the deceptions and lies from Monsanto, authorities such as the FDA, JAMA, Science News and even Science, the Cadillac of scientific publications.

In certain places, the book reads like a detective novel. She also stresses that the book was meticulously (thoroughly, accurately) documented. In fact, I count 337 references (sources), which are usually verifiable.

Jane Heimlich knows similar experiences of her husband about blindness of institutions. Her husband is Dr. Henry Jay Heimlich M.D., who developed the Heimlich maneuver, an effective and life-saving method for patients to dislodge something stuck in their throat. Because tapping on the back, makes the object slide even deeper into the trachea. The American Red Cross (ARC), however, would continue the nonsense because of bureaucratic blindness, instead propagating the life-saving Heimlich maneuver. Nevertheless, Wikipedia explains it.

Cohen’s preface

25 million American women over 40 were diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. These women drank about a liter of milk daily, or ate dairy products, which corresponds to this amount of milk. He poses the question, “What could possibly keep these women and their doctors blind to the fact that drinking milk has not prevented osteoporosis?”

In countries with little or no milk consumption osteoporosis or osteoarthritis occur only in exceptional cases. Cohen believes that the millions of cleverly invested advertising money have blinded us to the facts. He also points out that the stomach does not destroy the artificial "growthhormones" in milk like it does with meat. Actually, that's the first listing of all causes and effects of milk on the human body, which he then takes up and goes on to explain in further detail in the book.

2. Book review

As explained above, I only briefly discuss the first few chapters, which go over the history of how Monsanto fraudulently obtained approvals for their artificial "growthhormone" in the US and its impact on animals and humans. This artificial "growthhormone" is not approved in Europe.

2.1. Wholesome Milk: The Dairy Industry Message

The first chapter covers the market power of the dairy industry, namely milk producers (milk production) and milk processors (dairies) and begins with the statement that hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in the dairy industry in order to ensure that Americans consume dairy products.

This money flows partly to the media and partly to politicians, universities, researchers and their institutions. The American Dietitians Association (ADA) directly promotes the consumption of dairy products.

The author poses the question, what the reaction would be from adults if they were asked whether they wanted to drink breast milk or the milk of dogs and cats.

One would instinctively realize that milk is made for infants of their own kind, not for another species.

So what makes cow’s milk different?

The milk of each different species has a very specific composition that greatly varies during the lactation period and is fully adapted to the "growing" needs for the offspring of that specific species. The first food for mammals, including humans, is milk, first in the form of colostrum and then milk which continues to change. This food is perfectly adapted to the respective species. This also highlights the large difference in composition between cow's milk and human milk. The book does not address all the individual component parts of breast milk and the possible diseases of cows.

The fact that the dairy industry dominates the subject of milk in Wikipedia, can be recognized by an observant reader immediately!

Milk contains strong bovine "growthhormones" ("bovinesomatropin" or "BovineGrowthHormone", BGH), which are precisely adapted to a calf’s predetermined "growthpattern".

The corresponding components for this "growing" are enormous amounts of cholesterol, proteins and fat, so that the calf grows fast during the time that it is suckling, resulting in rapid weight gain. Today this is 2.2 to 3.3 lbs per day. And humans?

Because of today’s inhumane treatment of cows and the increased amount of milk production they are being bred for, milk contains insecticides, antibiotics, viruses and bacteria. (Page 1)

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) the average American consumed 584 pounds of milk products, 394 pounds of vegetables, 193 pounds of meat, 192 pounds of flour and only 121 pounds of fruit in the year of 1995. This also includes the milk hidden in pizza and ice cream, etc. According to current information that is an inverted food pyramid.

The ever-present milk advertising featuring celebrities

The author reminds us of the ever-present milk advertising featuring celebrities. Actresses and sports heroes are displayed with a white mustache of milk, so that the viewer thinks they just drank a glass of milk. The advertisement suggests: Drink milk and you're pretty as a picture! or Real men drink milk!

Film director Spike Lee, politician Bob Dole and president Bill Clinton contributed to these advertisements. As an aside, Clinton later goes on a vegan diet due to circulatory problems. Also a telephone number, 1-800-WHY-MILK is set up so the public can request more advertising material.

The logo of the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) is emblazoned on the back of a brochure that is available at this number. The brochure reads, advice from experts, followed by Pour it, don’t pop it! as an allusion, insinuating that Popeye was wrong and that spinach has outlived its usefulness. Spinach is described as being incomplete... At least with respect to iron the opposite is true!

Redaction comment

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) probably came originally from Southwest Asia (Persia). Young leaves are healthy when eaten raw in a salad. The seeds of spinach are edible raw or cooked. As a medicinal plant, spinach prevents flatulence.

Wikipedia: Spinach has a high content of minerals, vitamins (beta carotene, pro-vitamin A, vitamins of the B group, vitamin C) and protein. It contains high levels of iron (3.5 mg in 100 grams of fresh spinach) as compared with other vegetables.

Debatable is the absorption of iron from spinach in our digestion. 100 g fresh spinach has 92.7 g of water, 2.5 g protein, 1.6 grams carbohydrates, 1.2 g of fiber and 0.4 g of fat. Noteworthy are 16 other ingredients such as carotenoids, vitamins, potassium (450 mg), calcium (130 mg), etc.

Spinach is superior to many other vegetables, but the availability of calcium is impaired because of oxalates.

Significant amounts of oxalate also occur in chocolate (cocoa), nuts, rhubarb, star fruit, black pepper, parsley, poppy seeds, amaranth, chard, beets, blueberries, sorrel and white goosefoot.

In addition to kidney stones and other kidney diseases, oxalates can be the cause for gout, rheumatoid arthritis and vulvodynia.


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