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5 Jun 2015 05:02:00
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The Four Fundamental Forces of Evolution

Personal thoughts that helped me gain some insight into the principles of organic farming. Four fundamental forces of evolution that form an analog to physics.
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The subject of physics inspired my search for the fundamental forces of evolution.

There are four fundamental interactions in physics: gravity, electromagnetic force (electromagnetism), weak interaction (weak nuclear force, weak force), and strong interaction (nuclear strong force, color force). These are then the fundamental forces in physics.

Pleasure and pain, forces that drive individuals

In 1980, when I started with organic farming and later exporting the organic bananas grown in Tenerife, I first tried biodynamic agriculture. It seemed to be the best method at that time. But an experience I had that I describe below in the section “What this means for organic farming” and certain dogmas of the method that were simply too esoteric for me prompted me to discontinue this “special” type of farming and switch to traditional organic farming. Important: I do appreciate the Demeter quality very much, but it was just not “my thing.” (Demeter is a German brand with products that have been produced based on anthroposophical, biodynamic principles.)

I read a lot, of course, but as I was on my own, I also had a lot of time to think. I was interested in life. I first found it to be driven solely by pleasure and pain. The two greatest pleasures are involved with procreation and preservation of an individual; sexual satisfaction and the palate.

Many people are not aware of just how much suffering is found in nature, and it is true that even pain and suffering have their place. Pain has to do with protection and the finite nature of us as individuals.

It seems that the general public is not aware that plants also “cause pain” in order to assert themselves. Since plants neither have antibodies that provide adaptive immunity nor mobile immune cells, they need an innate immune response. This is called allelopathy. Allelochemicals are the substances used by the plants. But these are not the only weapons plants have.

Plants can have defenses to defend themselves against herbivores. In addition, saponins and other substances (including phytochemicals) are used in plant immune responses. Symbiosis is also used for defense and other purposes, for example, with mushrooms. According to the endosymbiotic theory (symbiogenesis), entire organisms have developed through symbiosis.

As part of chemical ecology, researchers examine the interrelationship of organisms in order to use this information for biological pest control. This way, conventional insecticides can be avoided.

Four kittens from the same litter very different markings. Wikipedia/Pieter Lanser.

A cat litter in which the siblings are all different colors (phenotypes). Photo: Wikipedia under Genetics, image uploaded by Pieter Lanser, NL, on flickr.

You can enlarge almost all of the images by clicking on them and also view them as a slideshow.

On the four fundamental forces of evolution

Selection, mutation, migration, and random genetic drift are known to bring about evolution.

At least for my own understanding, I believe I have found four principles that drive evolution. On the positive side, I find these to be important for organic farming, for example, to help us gain a deeper understanding of the interactions involved. But I believed that my thoughts on the subject would already be known or would be incomplete or incorrect.

There was no Internet yet at the time, and I believed that Konrad Lorenz would be the person most likely able to understand my thoughts on this topic and possibly comment, but I didn’t write him because I thought it might seem impudent.

I am now writing down these inductive thoughts here and making them available to the general public as I have not yet found them formulated anywhere else. I don’t think I have discovered something new, but I am viewing the topic from a different angle.

In my opinion, every living organism has one or more of the following “functions” in evolution. Of course, they don’t “know” this, but they simply act in a certain way and under certain conditions. However, in the end it leads to the following evolutionary effects:

  1. To serve as food for others
  2. To make dead biological mass available to other living organisms (decomposers, mineralization)
  3. To attack weak organisms in order to allow the strong to survive
  4. To spread other species throughout the entire world

This is what I see to be the motors or forces of evolution. They enable, enhance, and accelerate evolution, together with pleasure or pain reactions in individuals. To be able to understand these ideas, we must clearly distinguish between individual living creatures, species, and evolution as such. For example, a mealybug does not intend to attack a plant, but to nourish itself. However it is in the interaction of a plant with a healthy “aura” or defense and the “animal eating it” that the function of evolution occurs.

Today, the “first force of evolution” applies primarily to plants. While in physics, all four fundamental forces arose almost immediately, living nature remained practically unchanged for at least a billion years — with only the “first force” existing after organic matter arose. The actual beginning is difficult to define here.

The “second force” includes primarily bacteria, fungi, and saprobionts. Without these, biological mass would no longer be in circulation or take a lot more time to get back into circulation.

Bacteria and fungi act as part of the “third force,” but predators and other living organisms are also included here. They determine the “selection of the fittest” for a species and boost the “conversion rate.”

Birds and humans are probably typical representatives of the “fourth force.” Either way, the habitat of a successful species expands to a point where the limits of existence are reached, and greater suffering then follows. This is often where beneficial mutations occur so that a new center of origin can arise (center of diversity).

I was not able to find a “fifth force” to add to this “system” of fundamental forces of evolution. A new center of origin would be a result of the four forces and the two stimuli (pleasure and pain) in the individual, which at the minimum would cause epigenetic changes. Topics concerning genetics are, for example, gene frequency (allele frequency), population genetics, and gene pools. Topics on evolution (clarification of term) include evolution factor and the synthetic theory of evolution.

Autotrophy and heterotrophy

Image: Wikipedia, under Autotrophy, made available by Michael Häggstrom and others


What this means for organic farming

The following example demonstrates how important it is that we understand certain processes in nature:

Around 1980 in Santa Ursula, I bought a two-meter Canarian palm tree that a Spaniard had planted in an oil drum. He raised palm trees this way so that they would be easy to transport.

The roots of the palm tree had burst open the barrel in places. Unfortunately, the preparations needed in order to transplant the palm tree took more than a year. And by that time, all of the major fronds (leaves) were almost entirely covered in mealybugs.

We had a visit from an inspector for biodynamic farming. He was practically pleased about this situation and (I believe) on a night of a full moon, he removed the mealybugs. He prepared a sort of concoction or tea which he poured onto the fronds and also used to water the plant.

I told him that I’d bet that the mealybugs would return soon. And so it was. He was amazed and had no idea why the plant should be so afflicted — why the mealybugs would reappear in spite of the “death water.”

I explained my theory to him. I saw that the plant was wedged in the drum and didn’t have enough nutrients and was therefore weak and sick. These “pests” were now required by nature to take action. Fundamental force three was coming into play.

After the palm tree was finally put into its designated location and freed from the narrow oil barrel that lacked new nutrients, the mealybugs slowly disappeared. I’m not sure if that was only the case on the newly developed fronds or if even the old ones cleared up. But either way, we didn’t have to spray this plant to try to get rid of the bugs. It recovered from infestation because of its much improved nutritional situation.

A patio without a palm tree. Finca Rosario, Santa Ursula, Tenerife, ca. 1980/81.


The bare patio, 1980.

Left: patio without plants. Right: the fronds of our thriving palm tree. We also built two areas to sit down and relax.

Patio in full bloom at Finca Rosario, Santa Ursula, Tenerife. Mid-80s.

I saw the same in growing bananas. The conventional growers (I was the only one doing organic farming) were always struggling with mealybugs, red spiders, and nematodes. I did not have these problems; you can read more about that here and about a special muesli here. We exported the transitional produce to Migros Switzerland for three years. When changing to organic farming, the fruit is not considered to be organic until three years have passed. And that’s a good thing because any residues in the soil from previous cultivation must first decompose. We had even added new soil. After this period of time, we shipped boatloads of organic bananas to Schwarzbrot (organic retail store) in Hamburg and smaller orders to Via Verde AG in Pfaffnau, Switzerland. Unfortunately, Schwarzbrot no longer exists.

Origin of life

The origin and development of all living organisms is called phylogeny and stands in contrast to ontogeny, which describes the development of individual organisms. There are a number of theories about the origin of life in science (phylogeny). Today, we estimate the beginning of life on Earth to be about 3.5 to 4.6 billion years ago.

The classical doctrine of phylogeny is called autotrophic theory. According to this theory, iron-sulfur surfaces arose from volcanic emissions under reducing (oxidation number) and anaerobic conditions. Oxygen was still toxic for living organisms.

Similar life exists in deep underwater areas where photosynthesis is not possible. But autotrophy exists in organisms today as well. These produce their sustenance for existence and preservation exclusively from inorganic materials and energy. Iron-sulfur cluster is a term used in this context. We distinguish between phototrophy, which uses light as an energy source (such ”as in algae) and chemoautotrophy, which uses the surpluses of substance conversion, (such as bacteria and archaea). The latter are primitive bacteria (archaebacteria), which live as extremophiles in hot spots under water. Archaea are utilized today in soil and water sanitation and to extract methane in biogas facilities. To date, there are no known pathogens from the archaea group.

Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone Park, public domain (US Government).

There are several hot geysers and lakes in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Depicted here is the Grand Prismatic Spring. Image from the National Park Service (public domain).

German Wikipedia (under autotrophy) on photoautotrophy: “Almost all plants and algae, and some bacteria, such as the purple sulfur bacteria and green sulfur bacteria, convert light energy into chemical energy using chlorophyll-containing systems (ATP) (phototrophy). The resulting energy is used to produce fortifying and reserve materials out of inorganic materials (see photosynthesis).”

There is also a theory that extra-terrestrial particles brought life to earth. German Wikipedia describes it as follows in the entry on life: “The phylogenetic perspective on the origin of life includes the questions of whether life originated on Earth or on another celestial body and how the first living organisms emerged in an inanimate environment.”...

“The ontogenetic perspective focuses on the development of an individual, not on the initial creation of living organisms. It looks at how an organism develops (e.g., from a fertilized egg). This is also falsely referred to as “the beginning of life” although it really is a continuity of life over the course of generations. This is a case of the emergence of an individual, not of the initial creation of a living organism.”

Religions often hold up beliefs that in no way reflect current findings. In discussions with even very intelligent people, it is often impossible to get to the bottom of such issues as there is such a thing as “turning off the thinking brain.” See also The Meaning of Life, Natural Science, and Belief in Religion by Dr. Gottfried Schatz.

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Ernst Erb, Switzerland
Mein Lebenslauf hat mich motiviert, die "Stiftung G+E, Gesundheit und Ernährung" zu gründen. Im Beitrag "Schicksalsschläge, tödliche Krankheit, Gesundheit, Leben!" schildere ich etwas davon. Ein ebenso wichtiger Punkt bildet die Erfahrung aus dem Aufbau von Es bekommen zu viele Männer bereits ab Alter 65 schwerwiegende Krankheiten. Das gilt sicher auch für Frauen - und ganz allgemein altern wir zu rasch. So lange wie möglich zu leben ist nicht das Ziel, sondern so aktiv, positiv und glücklich wie möglich. Der Weg des geringsten Widerstands führt nicht dazu. Ganz im Gegenteil: nur im Leid schafft man grössere persönliche Veränderungen. Im Alter von 41 Jahren brachte mich die Todesangst vor meinem Krebsleiden dazu, über mein Leben zu reflektieren und auch bezüglich Krankheit selbstverantwortlich zu handeln. Heute bin ich froh, dass ich durch sehr schwierige Lebensphasen gehen musste. Dadurch konnte ich meine Lebensführung so verändern, dass ich auch im achtzigsten Lebensjahr (2015) >60 Stunden pro Woche am PC arbeiten und dabei leistungsfähig bleiben kann. Es ist falsch, so viele Stunden sitzend zu verbringen (früher waren es mehr), doch versuche ich das durch Ausdauersportarten (schnelles Wandern, Bergwandern, seit 2014 auch durch Joggen) und leider nicht immer jeden Tag ausgeführte Übungen (7 Min Workout ab iPhone) auszugleichen. Ich darf aber annehmen, dass die langjährige (Pesci-)vegane Ernährung mit ca. 90% Rohkostanteil den Ausschlag für meine Gesundheit gibt. Leider sind es mit Sicherheit nicht meine Gene. Auch als Angestellter sah ich meine Arbeit nie als Job, sondern als Hobby, das mich interessierte. Als ich eigene (kleine) Firmen aufbaute, war mir das Wohlergehen der Mitarbeiter besonders wichtig. Erfolg oder Misserfolg hing zu einem grossen Teil von ihnen ab. Es war nie mein Ziel, reich zu werden, sondern etwas individuell und intelligent aufzubauen, so dass es vielleicht Erfolg haben kann. Trotzdem kann ich es mir nun erlauben, mit meiner Erfahrung und meinen Möglichkeiten etwas aufzubauen, das interessierten Menschen zugut kommen kann. Zum Glück geben mir auch junge Menschen, die an "" mitarbeiten, das Gefühl echter Teamarbeit. Einige arbeiten mit mir persönlich zusammen, wie ein Software-Entwickler neben einem Studium. Doch mit Skype und TeamViewer ist es möglich, mit geographisch weit verstreuten MitarbeiterInnen zu arbeiten, wie z.B. mit professionellen ÜbersetzerInnen. Selbst Professoren oder Ärzte beteiligen sich an diesem etwas speziellen Projekt, indem sie eigene Texte beisteuern. Unsere Themenbereiche erfassen eigentlich alles, was uns Menschen ausmacht: Gesundheit - Prinzipien/Allg. - Heilkunde - Ernährung - Produktion/Handel - Drogen - Aktivität - Lifestyle - Politik - Wellness - Natur - Umwelt - Persönlichkeit - Ethik - Soziales / Religion. Noch weiss ich nicht, ob "" mit diesem Versuch, den Menschen "nur" solide Zusammenhänge zu vermitteln, auch die notwendige Beachtung erhalten kann. Doch meine ich, dass es reflektierende Menschen gibt, die Zusammenhänge verstehen wollen, statt jedem Modetrend lemmingehaft nachzugehen oder sich zu einem leicht begehbaren Weg (ver-)führen zu lassen. Ob die auch die notwendige Aufmerksamkeitsspanne und den Willen zum Lesen mitbringen? Jedenfalls fehlte mir eine solch umfassende Quelle, die mir ungefärbte Antworten auf wichtigste Fragen geben kann. Deshalb versuche ich diesen "vorher vergeblich gesuchten Hafen" aufzubauen. Hoffentlich habe ich auch die Zeit und Kraft dazu.

... more

Martina Une, image_from_year 2015
Martina Une, United States

05/06/2015 05:02

Updated at

12/03/2016 15:20

Tag Cloud
 evolution   organisms   organic   farming   forces   plants   plant   force   individual   bacteria   theory   origin   mealybugs   palm   fundamental   nature   autotrophy   almost   energy   fronds   pleasure   species   tree   exists   development   center   organism   following   arose   public 
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