Note: Since the nutritional information is automatically calculated, we have to distinguish between lemons used without the peel and lemons used with the entire peel, for example, for marmalade.
In our recipes, lemons are either squeezed / “scraped out” or first peeled to make lemon segments. Lemons with peel or lemon peel would be the other options.
We also should distinguish between lemons and limes. Limes are greener and smaller and usually taste stronger and are also more aromatic, whereas lemons are considered to be sour.
From Wikipedia: “The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a species of small evergreen tree native to Asia.
The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses. The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.
The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam (a region in northeast India), northern Burma or China. A study of the genetic origin of the lemon reported it to be hybrid between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron.”
Information about the name:
“The origin of the word "lemon" may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon, then Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, which is a cognate of Sanskrit (nimbū, “lime”).”
“Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving. Other essential nutrients, however, have insignificant content.
Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols and terpenes. As with other citrus fruits, they have significant concentrations of citric acid (about 47 g/l in juice).”
Why you shouldn't use lemon peel from chemically treated lemons:
“Only the peel of untreated lemons should be eaten. Citrus fruits are generally sprayed with a waxy protective layer and preservatives such as thiabendazole (E 233). Some time ago, biphenyl (E230) was also used for this purpose. Eating the peel of such lemons is considered unhealthy. Untreated lemon peels are processed further to make lemon oil.*”
“The 'Meyer' is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons require more care when shipping and are not widely grown on a commercial basis. Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color. They are slightly more frost-tolerant than other lemons.”
“Since the 1990s, Meyer lemons have become increasingly popular in the United States after Alice Waters and Martha Stewart started using this type of lemon in their recipes.*”
Note (italics): * = Translation from a German Wikipedia entry.