Fennel, especially its bulb and seed, is used as an ingredient in both raw and cooked dishes. In addition, fennel is also used for the production of certain medicines and as an ingredient to flavor some liquors.
From Wikipedia: “Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.
It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.
Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in north America it may be used by the anise swallowtail.”
Cultivation and uses:
“Fennel is widely cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible, strongly flavored leaves and fruits. Its aniseed flavor comes from anethole, an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise, and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though usually not as strong. ...
Fennel has become naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, and in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, and much of Asia and Australia. It propagates well by seed, and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States. In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats.
Florence fennel is one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe, an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became, by the late 19th century, a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.”
“A 100-gram portion of fennel seeds provides 1,440 kilojoules (345 kilocalories) of food energy, and it is a rich source (more than 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals, especially calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV (table). Fennel seeds are 52% carbohydrates, 15% fat, 40% dietary fiber, 16% protein and 9% water.”
“The bulb, foliage, and seeds of the fennel plant are used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel (known as fennel "pollen") are the most potent form of fennel, but also the most expensive. Dried fennel seed is an aromatic, anise-flavored spice, brown or green in color when fresh, slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. For cooking, green seeds are optimal. The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. Young tender leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, and also in soups and fish sauce.
Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise, which are similar in taste and appearance, though smaller. Fennel is also used as a flavoring in some natural toothpastes. The seeds are used in cookery and sweet desserts.”
Fennel in specific cuisines:
“Many cultures in India and neighboring countries, Afghanistan, Iran, and the Middle East use fennel seed in cooking as one of the most important spices in Kashmiri Pandit and Gujarati cooking. It is an essential ingredient of the Assamese/Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. In many parts of India, roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas, an after-meal digestive and breath freshener, or candied as comfit.
Fennel leaves are used in some parts of India as leafy green vegetables either by themselves or mixed with other vegetables, cooked to be served and consumed as part of a meal. In Syria and Lebanon, the young leaves are used to make a special kind of egg omelette (along with onions and flour) called ijjeh.
Many egg, fish, and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads, often tossed with chicory and avocado, or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. It may be blanched or marinated, or cooked in risotto.
Fennel seeds are the primary flavor component in Italian sausage. In Spain, the stems of the fennel plant are used in the preparation of pickled eggplants, berenjenas de Almagro. An herbal tea or tisane can be made from fennel.”
|Nutritional Information per 100g||2000 kCal|
|Saturated Fats||0.09 g||0.4%|
|Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber)||7.3 g||2.7%|
|Protein (albumin)||1.2 g||2.5%|
|Cooking Salt (Na:52.0 mg)||132 mg||5.5%|
|Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal|
|Vit||Vitamin K||63 µg||84.0%|
|Elem||Potassium, K||414 mg||21.0%|
|Vit||Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)||12 mg||15.0%|
|Vit||Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11)||27 µg||14.0%|
|Min||Manganese, Mn||0.19 mg||10.0%|
|Elem||Phosphorus, P||50 mg||7.0%|
|Sodium, Na||52 mg||7.0%|
|Min||Copper, Cu||0.07 mg||7.0%|
|Vit||Vitamin A, as RAE||48 µg||6.0%|
|Elem||Calcium, Ca||49 mg||6.0%|
The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.
If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.
For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.
|Essential amino acids||2000 kCal|
|Vitamin K||63 µg||84.0%|
|Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)||12 mg||15.0%|
|Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11)||27 µg||14.0%|
|Vitamin A, as RAE||48 µg||6.0%|
|Vitamin E, as a-TEs||0.58 mg||5.0%|
|Niacin (née vitamin B3)||0.64 mg||4.0%|
|Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)||0.23 mg||4.0%|
|Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)||0.05 mg||3.0%|
|Riboflavin (vitamin B2)||0.03 mg||2.0%|
|Thiamine (vitamin B1)||0.01 mg||1.0%|
|Vitamin D||0 µg||< 0.1%|
|Essential macroelements (macronutrients)||2000 kCal|
|Potassium, K||414 mg||21.0%|
|Phosphorus, P||50 mg||7.0%|
|Sodium, Na||52 mg||7.0%|
|Calcium, Ca||49 mg||6.0%|
|Magnesium, Mg||17 mg||5.0%|
|Essential trace elements (micronutrients)||2000 kCal|
|Manganese, Mn||0.19 mg||10.0%|
|Copper, Cu||0.07 mg||7.0%|
|Iron, Fe||0.73 mg||5.0%|
|Zinc, Zn||0.2 mg||2.0%|
|Selenium, Se||0.7 µg||1.0%|