Foundation for Diet and Health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

Strawberry, raw

Wild strawberries have been eaten since the Stone Age, but it wasn’t until the eighteenth century that crossbreeding yielded the larger garden strawberry.
89/08/03  LA:ALA

Strawberries donʼt continue to ripen after harvest if they are picked too early (nonclimacteric fruits). We have been using wild strawberries since the Stone Age, but it wasn’t until the eighteenth century that American varieties were crossbred to yield the garden strawberry. In botanical terms, strawberries are an aggregate accessory fruit and not a botanical berry.

General information:

From Wikipedia: “The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria (collectively known as the strawberries). It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit. ...

“Strawberry cultivars vary widely in size, color, flavor, shape, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant. On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. ...”


“Most strawberry plants are now fed with artificial fertilizers, both before and after harvesting, and often before planting in plasticulture.

To maintain top quality, berries are harvested at least every other day. The berries are picked with the caps still attached and with at least half an inch of stem left. Strawberries need to remain on the plant to fully ripen because they do not continue to ripen after being picked. ...”

Culinary and other uses:

“In addition to being consumed fresh, strawberries can be frozen, made into preserves, as well as dried and used in prepared foods, such as cereal bars. Strawberries and strawberry flavorings are a popular addition to dairy products, such as strawberry-flavored milk, strawberry ice cream, strawberry milkshakes, strawberry smoothies and strawberry yogurts. ... 

As strawberry flavor and fragrance are popular characteristics for consumers, they are used widely in a variety of manufacturing, including foods, beverages, confections, perfumes and cosmetics.”

Nutritional value:

“One serving (100 g) of strawberries contains approximately 33 kilocalories, is an excellent source of vitamin C, a good source of manganese, and provides several other vitamins and dietary minerals in lesser amounts.

Few studies have directly examined the effects of eating strawberries on human health. However, limited research indicates that strawberry consumption may be associated with a decreased cardiovascular disease risk and that phytochemicals present in strawberries have anti-inflammatory or anticancer properties in laboratory studies. Epidemiological studies have associated strawberry consumption with lower rates of hypertension, cancer, and death from cardiovascular diseases. Certain studies have suggested that strawberry consumption may have beneficial effects in humans such as lowering blood LDL cholesterol levels, total cholesterol, reducing the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, and decreasing the spike in blood sugar after high sugar meals and the spike in blood cholesterol seen after high-fat meals.”


“Some people experience an anaphylactoid reaction to eating strawberries. The most common form of this reaction is oral allergy syndrome, but symptoms may also mimic hay fever or include dermatitis or hives, and, in severe cases, may cause breathing problems. Proteomic studies indicate that the allergen may be tied to a protein for the red anthocyanin biosynthesis expressed in strawberry ripening, named Fra a1 (Fragaria allergen1). Homologous proteins are found in birch pollen and apple, suggesting that people may develop cross-reactivity to all three species.

White-fruited strawberry cultivars, lacking Fra a1, may be an option for strawberry allergy sufferers. ... A virtually allergen-free cultivar named ‘Sofar’ is available.”

Interesting facts:

“Strawberries are considered to be a particularly healthy food for pregnant women. If a woman in France craves strawberries, this is considered to be a sign that she may be pregnant. In contrast, if a woman in Germany has strong cravings for pickles, it is suspected that she is pregnant.*”

Note (italics): * = Translation from a German Wikipedia entry

Nutritional Information per 100g 2000 kCal
Energy 32 kcal1.6%
Fat/Lipids 0.3 g0.4%
Saturated Fats 0.02 g0.1%
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber) 7.7 g2.8%
Sugars 4.9 g5.4%
Fiber 2 g8.0%
Protein (albumin) 0.67 g1.3%
Cooking Salt (Na:1.0 mg)2.5 mg0.1%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Protein (albumin)
Cooking Salt

Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal
VitVitamin C (ascorbic acid) 59 mg74.0%
MinManganese, Mn 0.39 mg19.0%
VitFolate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 24 µg12.0%
ElemPotassium, K 153 mg8.0%
MinCopper, Cu 0.05 mg5.0%
FatAlpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0.06 g3.0%
VitVitamin K 2.2 µg3.0%
MinIron, Fe 0.41 mg3.0%
ElemMagnesium, Mg 13 mg3.0%
ElemPhosphorus, P 24 mg3.0%

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids, (SC-PUFA) 2000 kCal
Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0.06 g3.0%
Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 0.09 g1.0%

Essential amino acids 2000 kCal
Tryptophan (Trp, W) 0.01 g3.0%
Threonine (Thr, T) 0.02 g2.0%
Isoleucine (Ile, I) 0.02 g1.0%
Leucine (Leu, L) 0.03 g1.0%
Lysine (Lys, K) 0.03 g1.0%
Phenylalanine (Phe, F) 0.02 g1.0%
Valine (Val, V) 0.02 g1.0%
Methionine (Met, M) 0 g< 0.1%

Vitamins 2000 kCal
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 59 mg74.0%
Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 24 µg12.0%
Vitamin K 2.2 µg3.0%
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.05 mg3.0%
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.02 mg2.0%
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.02 mg2.0%
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 0.39 mg2.0%
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.12 mg2.0%
Vitamin E, as a-TEs 0.29 mg2.0%
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%
Vitamin A, as RAE 1 µg< 0.1%

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) 2000 kCal
Potassium, K 153 mg8.0%
Magnesium, Mg 13 mg3.0%
Phosphorus, P 24 mg3.0%
Calcium, Ca 16 mg2.0%
Sodium, Na 1 mg< 0.1%

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) 2000 kCal
Manganese, Mn 0.39 mg19.0%
Copper, Cu 0.05 mg5.0%
Iron, Fe 0.41 mg3.0%
Zinc, Zn 0.14 mg1.0%
Selenium, Se 0.4 µg1.0%
Fluorine, F 4.4 µg< 0.1%