Foundation for Diet and Health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health


Zwieback is also available in vegan form, but because of large differences we have used “normal” zwieback to calculate the nutritional information.
79/11/10  LA!:0ALA

Zwieback originates from East Prussia. Somewhat later, it was introduced in Russia from where it was brought to North America during the Russian Revolution. Today, zwieback is available in a number of varieties and is often given to patients with stomach troubles as a solid meal since it is easy to digest. The name zwie (twice) -back” (baked) refers to the way zwieback is made.

General information:

From Wikipedia: Zwieback is a form of rusk eaten in Scandinavia, Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy, Slovenia, and Greece. It is a type of crisp, sweetened bread, made with eggs and baked twice. ...

Zwieback is commonly used to feed teething children and as the first solid food for patients with an upset stomach.

The name comes from German zwei ("two") or zwie ("twi-"), and backen, meaning "to bake". Zwieback hence literally translates to "twice-baked". The French and Italian names, respectively, biscotte and fette biscottate have the same origin, biscotto (biscuit), which also means twʼice ("bis-") baked (-"cotto").”


“First, a sweet bread similar to white bread is prepared and baked. This is called the “Einback” (once baked). The dough contains high gluten flour (for example, type 550), milk, butter or margarine, sugar, eggs, yeast, and salt. Zwieback sold in stores for children and other household members contains about 6 parts fat and 10 parts sugar for every 100 parts flour. In addition, other types of flour such as spelt flour and whole grain flour (for whole grain zwieback) and other ingredients for special types of zwieback are used. See the section ʽTypes.ʼ

After baking, the “Einback” is cut into slices and roasted in the oven on low heat. It takes on color, dries out, and becomes crispy — the result is zwieback. When zwieback is sold fresh, a relatively high moisture level is permitted and the center may still be soft. If it is to be stored for a longer period of time, it has to be dried in the oven or drying chamber for an additional period of time in order to reduce the water content to 10% or lower. The crumbs immediately become crisp. Before roasting, the “Einback,” can be spread with a mixture such as a chestnut spread or frosted. Other coatings (e.g., couverture) are added after roasting.*”

Note about packaging requirements:

“Zwieback usually has a long shelf life, but it does easily absorb moisture and can then lose its crispness and spoil more easily. There is also the danger that the fat content will become rancid from exposure to air and light. It is therefore essential that the packaging protect zwieback from water vapors, air, and light.*”


There have always been a number of types of zwieback to choose from. Here are a few examples:

  • French zwieback: “zwieback that is low in fat and sugar and made without milk.*”
  • Nährzwieback: (zwieback for children) “This type of zwieback has largely disappeared from the market, but it was seen to be especially suited for children. This is the only type of zwieback that has to meet special requirements as per the ʽDeutsches Lebensmittelbuchʼ (Book in Germany describing standards for each type of food). It must include 10 parts butter and 10 parts whole egg or the equivalent of egg yolk (3 parts) for every 100 part flour and be coated only with whole milk or an equivalent dried milk.*”
  • Bergisches zwieback: (from the low mountain range region in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) “This zwieback has a longer shape and is often coated with lemon icing or coconut flakes.*”

Note (italics): * = Translation from a German Wikipedia entry

Nutritional Information per 100g 2000 kCal
Energy 426 kcal21.3%
Fat/Lipids 9.7 g13.9%
Saturated Fats 2.5 g12.6%
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber) 74 g27.5%
Sugars 12 g13.9%
Fiber 2.5 g10.0%
Protein (albumin) 10 g20.2%
Cooking Salt (Na:227.0 mg)577 mg24.0%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Protein (albumin)
Cooking Salt

Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal
MinSelenium, Se 29 µg52.0%
VitFolate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 87 µg44.0%
VitVitamin E, as a-TEs 4.8 mg40.0%
Sodium, Na 227 mg28.0%
FatLinoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 2 g20.0%
VitThiamine (vitamin B1) 0.21 mg19.0%
VitRiboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.24 mg17.0%
ElemPotassium, K 305 mg15.0%
MinCopper, Cu 0.14 mg15.0%
VitPantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.54 mg9.0%

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids, (SC-PUFA) 2000 kCal
Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 2 g20.0%
Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0.06 g3.0%

Essential amino acids 2000 kCal

Vitamins 2000 kCal
Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 87 µg44.0%
Vitamin E, as a-TEs 4.8 mg40.0%
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0.21 mg19.0%
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.24 mg17.0%
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.54 mg9.0%
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 1.3 mg8.0%
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 5.3 mg7.0%
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.08 mg6.0%
Vitamin A, as RAE 16 µg2.0%
Vitamin K 0.9 µg1.0%
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) 2000 kCal
Sodium, Na 227 mg28.0%
Potassium, K 305 mg15.0%
Phosphorus, P 55 mg8.0%
Magnesium, Mg 14 mg4.0%
Calcium, Ca 20 mg3.0%

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) 2000 kCal
Selenium, Se 29 µg52.0%
Copper, Cu 0.14 mg15.0%
Zinc, Zn 0.54 mg5.0%
Iron, Fe 0.6 mg4.0%
Fluorine, F 0.1 µg< 0.1%