Foundation for Diet and Health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

The best perspective for your health

Tap water

The quality of tap water (drinking water) varies greatly by location and can contain contaminants. Water sources, water systems, and water treatment … See text.
00/00/00  LA:ALA

Drinking water as tap water can vary greatly in quality depending on your latitude location and region and whether you live in a municipal or rural area. Read more about drinking water quality standards. There are unfortunately many pseudoscientific and esoteric claims when it comes to water such as the idea of revitalized water. See also mineral water.

General information:

From Wikipedia on drinking water. “Drinking water, also known as potable water or improved drinking water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation, without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2012, 89% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4 billion had access to tap water while another 2.3 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces. This can result in infectious diarrhea such as cholera and typhoid among others. ...

Typically in developed countries, tap water meets drinking water quality standards, even though only a small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Other typical uses include washing, toilets, and irrigation. Greywater may also be used for toilets or irrigation. Its use for irrigation however may be associated with risks. Water may also be unacceptable due to levels of toxins or suspended solids. Reduction of waterborne diseases and development of safe water resources is a major public health goal in developing countries. Bottled water is sold for public consumption in most parts of the world. The word potable came into English from the Late Latin potabilis, meaning drinkable.“


“The drinking water contribution to mineral nutrients intake is also unclear. Inorganic minerals generally enter surface water and ground water via storm water runoff or through the Earth's crust. Treatment processes also lead to the presence of some minerals. Examples include calcium, zinc,manganese, phosphate, fluoride and sodium compounds. Water generated from the biochemical metabolism of nutrients provides a significant proportion of the daily water requirements for some arthropods and desert animals, but provides only a small fraction of a human's necessary intake. There are a variety of trace elements present in virtually all potable water, some of which play a role in metabolism. For example, sodium, potassium and chloride are common chemicals found in small quantities in most waters, and these elements play a role in body metabolism. Other elements such as fluoride, while beneficial in low concentrations, can cause dental problems and other issues when present at high levels.”

Water quality:

“In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets standards for tap and public water systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water as a food product under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act(FFDCA). Bottled water is not necessarily more pure, or more tested, than public tap water. Peter W. Preuss, head of the U.S. EPA's division analyzing environmental risks, has been "particularly concerned" about current drinking water standards, and suggested in 2009 that regulations against certain chemicals should be tightened.

In 2010 the EPA showed that 54 active pharmaceutical ingredients and 10 metabolites had been found in treated drinking water. An earlier study from 2005 by the EPA and the Geographical Survey states that 40% of water was contaminated with nonprescription pharmaceuticals, and it has been reported that 8 of the 12 most commonly occurring chemicals in drinking water are estrogenic hormones. Of the pharmaceutical components found in drinking water, the EPA only regulates lindane and perchlorate. In 2009, the EPA did announce another 13 chemicals, hormones, and antibiotics that could potentially be regulated. The decision on whether or not they are sufficiently harmful to be regulated may not be decided upon until 2012 as it takes time for testing."

Nutritional Information per 100g 2000 kCal
Energy 0 kcal0.0%
Fat/Lipids 0 g0.0%
Saturated Fats 0 g0.0%
Carbohydrates (inc.dietary fiber) 0 g0.0%
Sugars 0 g0.0%
Fiber 0 g0.0%
Protein (albumin) 0 g0.0%
Cooking Salt (Na:4.0 mg)10 mg0.4%
Recommended daily allowance according to the GDA.
Protein (albumin)
Cooking Salt

Essential Nutrients per 100g with %-share Daily Requirement at 2000 kCal
MinFluorine, F 71 µg2.0%
Sodium, Na 4 mg1.0%
MinCopper, Cu 0.01 mg1.0%
VitVitamin A, as RAE 0 µg< 0.1%
VitFolate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 0 µg< 0.1%
ElemCalcium, Ca 3 mg< 0.1%
MinIron, Fe 0 mg< 0.1%
ElemMagnesium, Mg 1 mg< 0.1%
ElemPhosphorus, P 0 mg< 0.1%
ElemPotassium, K 0 mg< 0.1%

The majority of the nutritional information comes from the USDA (US Department of Agriculture). This means that the information for natural products is often incomplete or only given within broader categories, whereas in most cases products made from these have more complete information displayed.

If we take flaxseed, for example, the important essential amino acid ALA (omega-3) is only included in an overarching category whereas for flaxseed oil ALA is listed specifically. In time, we will be able to change this, but it will require a lot of work. An “i” appears behind ingredients that have been adjusted and an explanation appears when you hover over this symbol.

For Erb Muesli, the original calculations resulted in 48 % of the daily requirement of ALA — but with the correction, we see that the muesli actually covers >100 % of the necessary recommendation for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Our goal is to eventually be able to compare the nutritional value of our recipes with those that are used in conventional western lifestyles.

Essential fatty acids, (SC-PUFA) 2000 kCal
Alpha-Linolenic acid; ALA; 18:3 omega-3 0 g< 0.1%
Linoleic acid; LA; 18:2 omega-6 0 g< 0.1%

Essential amino acids 2000 kCal

Vitamins 2000 kCal
Vitamin A, as RAE 0 µg< 0.1%
Folate, as the active form of folic acid (née vitamin B9 and B11) 0 µg< 0.1%
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 0 mg< 0.1%
Thiamine (vitamin B1) 0 mg< 0.1%
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0 mg< 0.1%
Niacin (née vitamin B3) 0 mg< 0.1%
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0 mg< 0.1%
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0 mg< 0.1%
Vitamin D 0 µg< 0.1%

Essential macroelements (macronutrients) 2000 kCal
Sodium, Na 4 mg1.0%
Calcium, Ca 3 mg< 0.1%
Magnesium, Mg 1 mg< 0.1%
Phosphorus, P 0 mg< 0.1%
Potassium, K 0 mg< 0.1%

Essential trace elements (micronutrients) 2000 kCal
Fluorine, F 71 µg2.0%
Copper, Cu 0.01 mg1.0%
Iron, Fe 0 mg< 0.1%
Zinc, Zn 0.01 mg< 0.1%
Manganese, Mn 0 mg< 0.1%
Selenium, Se 0 µg< 0.1%